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Back To Craftsman Welder       Model: 113.201372 or 113201372 Craftsman 230 Amp Dual Range Arc Welder
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MODEL N _ ° 113.201372 _ Serial Number Model and serial number may be found at the rear of the cabinet . You should record both model and serial number in a safe place for future use , 230 AMP DUAL RANGE CAUTION : ARC WELDER Read SAFETY ® assembly UNSTRUCTIONS e operating carefully ® repair parts Sold by SEARS , ROEBUCK AND CO . , Chicago , IL 60684 U . S . A . Part No . 61337 Printed in U SA
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SAFETY gNSTRUCTIONS TO OPERATOR For your own protection , read and observe all instructions hydrocarbon vapors coming from degreasing , included in this manual as well as the following specific cleaning , or spraying operations The heat of the rays safety precautions : of the arc can react with solvent vapors to form phosgene , a highly toxic gas , and other irritating 1 , PROTECTION FROM ELECTRICAL SHOCK products a _ Do not let bare skin or wet clothing come between h Unprotected spectators must be kept clear of the the following combinations : welding area due to the harmful nature of ultra ÷ violet Electrode and infra - red arc rays , welding sparks , and welding fumes and gases 3 . FLAMMABLE AND EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS Work Piece Metal Work ' Table a Remove flammable and explosive material at least 35 Work Clamp feet from the welding arc to prevent welding sparks 80 volts exist between these parts or molten metal from starting a fire Keep a type when welder is onH ! ABC fire extinguisher within easy reach . Wear dry hole - free , clothing , _ gloves and shoes to b , Welding on or near containers which hold combustibles protect and insulate the body . can cause ar _ explosion , even when they have been b . Take special care to insulate " yourself from ground cleaned = For information purchase " Safe Practices for using dry insulation ( suchas dry wood ) of - ad . equate Welding one Cutting Containers that Have Hel d size when welding ] in dam'p locations on metal floors Combustibles " ( A6 . 0 - 65 _ from the American Welding or grat ngs , and m poslt _ ons ( such as s = ttmg or lying ! " : . Society 2501 Northwest Seventh St Miami , Florida where parts - or " large " areas of your body can be ir contact with phssible ground _ . ; " . ; _ ro " _ c . When not welding , place the electrode holder where it C . Maintain the _ . # l _ ctr _ de h _ tder work clamp , w _ ldin'g " " i _ ihs ' 61ated from the work clamp , work piece , or ' wc _ rk ' table _ . _ Ac _ ' idental grounding can cause cable and welding _ : rnach _ ne ' . _ n _ Qd , safe operating . _ condition , : _ _ ; " " , : ' - ' • " , _ overheating of the _ ables'and _ welder , creating a fire haz _ rd _ _ : : _ " _ " Do not use weldm _ electrode as - a claarette hg _ ter , . - e . Connect the welder only to a source of electncal ' . - iild Never - c _ nnect the _ work cablelor clamp to any obJect b _ _ ' he ' worl < : p e _ e o _ me . to _ ork tab e Conr ] ecting power meeting the requirements , irrcluding to other objects such as bu _ l _ mg ground can create a grounding , of the National Electrical Code ( ANSI Cl ) fire hazard . and local codes . f . Electrode coating may be electrically conductive - 4 . PREVENTATIVE MAINTENANCE use welding gloves when changing electrodes . a . Never apply power to the welder with any part of the 2 . EYE AND BODY PROTECTION " cabinet " removed _ Position on - off switch in " Off " position and disconnect welder from the power a . Use helmet , filter , and cover plate complying with supply before doing maintenance work inside the ANSI Z87 1 to protect your eyes and face from machine . Removal of the welder cabinet should be sparks and the rays of the arc when welding or done only by a qualified service technician , observing open arc welding , b Always wear safety goggles with side shields b . Before connecting the welder power cord to the complying with ANSI Z871 when in a welding area , receptacle , check the following : or when near slag chipping operation 1 Inspect the power cord and welding cables for cuts c . Wear oil free protective garments , such as leather or burns and make sure blades and ground pin on gloves , heavy shirt , cuffless trousers and high shoes . the plug are straighL d Protect other near - by personnel with suitable 2 Inspect " On - Off " switch lever for cracks or broken non - flammable screening _ parts . e Welding can produce fumes and gases which are 3 Inspect electrode holder jaw insulators for cracks dangerous to health , Keep your head out of the or broken parts . fumes , Use enough ventilation , exhaust at the arc , or c . both , to keep fumes and gases from your breathing Never weld anything on or to the welder cabinet , as a zone and the general area , Take even greater care burn through may cause transformer failure . when welding on galvanized or cadmium plated steel d _ For additional safety information , purchase copies of and other metals which produce toxic fumes " Practice for Occupational and Educational Eye and Ab - supplied helmets may be necessary Face Protection " ( ANSI Z87 . 1 ) , " Safety in Welding f When working above floor level , protect yourself and Cutting " ( ANSI Z49 . 1 ) , and " Fire Protection in from a fall should you get a shock Never wrap the Use of Welding and Cutting Processes " ( ANSI / NFPA electrode cable around arty part of your body No . 518 ) from the American National Standards institute , 1430 Sroadway , New York , N . Y 10018 _ g Do not weld in locations close to chlorinated 2
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READANDOBSERVTEHEINSTRUCTIOANPSPEARINOGNTHEWARNINGLABELSFOUNDONTHEINSIDEOF THEWELDINGHELMETA , NDONTHESELECTOPRLATEC , ABINEATNDELECTRODHEOLDER . _ MERIEAN N , _ 71ON , _ L ST , INI , ) , _ RDS hV _ TITUTE PttEC , _ UTION _ RY I Af ] EL WARNING - FOR YOUR SAFET ' _ WARNII _ G : prolel : I VotJt _ ell _ t _ d { _ thefs _ e ; l ( I ; _ f _ { I R _ GAR _ ING B0 VOLT POTENTIAL unders14 _ mt lh _ I _ bel CllRI0 _ SHOC ; { AT ELECT } IOD _ F UJ % _ ES AND GASES c ; lll he ( i , ln { J _ f al _ s tn ymJl he _ hh USe _ lJ 101 IE , _ _ n0 _ y _ pi01egi0n ARC RAYS call inlllle eyel and hum stroll ELECTRIC a _ ins $ = nj _ io _ rays Itom _ c _ ding SHOCK cml kill _ nd culling US _ propel shade li ! I _ • Be , _ d and understand _ l _ e incm _ Hanh _ fef _ = nslnJ _ io _ t _ plale _ P ¢ _ . I { ssi _ IO _ 12 plo [ _ ction ( Iil _ pble b _ ck _ up plale • s _ p _ lale and yo _ Jt amployef's _ alely pr acllce _ salely spectacles ) shou + d be worn • Keep your head aut of _ 1 _ h _ nles REGARDING POTENTIAL SHOCK ON CABINET wheII U _ l _ 0 this device It _ cl fe - • U _ a enmJ _ h Vel _ il _ iOl _ , _ xha _ Jst al Ihe ; _ , c , ot boUI sislanl plal _ ale DOT un _ le . lkable lo kee I ) _ ume _ and _ ase _ from 7o _ f I _ re ; _ lhi _ I z _ ) m _ COW , FORMING TO 1H _ _ ATIONAL _ L _ CTnlCAL COD _ elted ¢ _ s _ la _ h _ d _ Je _ t _ u _ VISI _ I and the { Jene [ al area al _ { _ 5 _ liO _ $ 1 le _ uc8 pI01eGIJ0r _ - - REGAROING £ yE INJURY • Wear cot _ ecl eye , _ ar _ nd body ltlo _ ectlon { epia _ eintricately • Do I _ O _ _ ouch llve elec _ rical I ) aFt _ Inspecl { ( equ _ Ily an _ immedi31 _ ly • See American National Si , _ nIt , _ f ( I Z49 . 1 S _ lety in I _ p _ u _ _ om ot d _ m _ ged p _ tls Wl ! h _ hlg mid Cliilin = j ¸ ' i ) _ JIilillle ( I I } 7 lhe Ait / eficalt t , it4 _ ir _ t ¢ = ¢ . ¢ _ = f JJ . I . L zr / 1 Wohthlg Sociel ¥ 2501 N W 71h SI , , _ , tbm _ Florida DO NOT REMOVE " fills [ / _ 3 , E L REGARDING FIRE 33125 ; OSIIA Saf _ W _ 1 _ { I He _ hh SI , _ ndatds 29 CFR 1910 , availal ) _ J _ hont U S Dep _ tmenl o _ Labor Washinglon , DC 20210 LI _ O _ AW _ * nC eT _ muY't DO NOT R E _ , _ OV E THIS LABEL LENS SHADENO WARNING ELeCTR , C SHOCK CAN BE FATALt BEFORE TURNING WELDER ON CHECK THE ELECTRODE HOLDER TO BE SURE THAT THERE ARE NO PROTRUDING SCREW HEADS AND THAT ALL INSULATION IS SECURE _ _ ll ! ! 2 FULL ONE YEAR WARRANTY ON CRAFTSMAN ELECTRIC WELDER If this Craftsman Electric Welder fails to perform properly , due to a defect in material or workmanship , within one year from the date of purchase , Sears will repair it free of charge , WARRANTY SERVICE IS AVAILABLE BY SIMPLY RETURNING THE WELDER TO THE NEAREST SEARS STORE OR SERVICE CENTER THROUGHOUT THE UNITED STATES . This warranty gives you specific legal rights , and you may also have other rights which vary from state to state , SEARS , ROEBUCK AND CO . Sears Tower _ BSC 41 - 3 , Chicago , IL 60684 LOCKING KNOB MATERIAL THICKNESS GAUGE . ' IAMETER GAUGE ON - OFF SWITCH . - . DUTLETJACKS GETTING TO KNOW YOUR ARC WELDER HELMET AND ELECTRODE HOLDER WORK CABLE AND WORK CLAMP TABLE OF CONTENTS OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS Operating Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Safety I nstructions to Operator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Operating Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Warranty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Trouble Shooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Getting to Know Your Welder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 ARC WELD IT YOURSELF MANUAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 - 1 Unpacking and Checking Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 WELDING ROD SPECIFICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 1 Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 REPAIR PARTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 6
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SPECIFICATIONS Max Open Circuit Fuse or Circuit Input Volts ( AC ) : . . . . . . . . . . . 230 Output Volts . . . . . . . . . . 80 Breaker Required : . . . . . . . . . 50 Amps Hertz ( Cycles ) : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Power Factor . . . . . . . . . . . 66 % Arc Voltage : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Output Amperage : . . . . . . . . 30 to 140 Duty Cycle : . . . . . . . . 20 to 100 % 40 to 230 KVA : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 KW : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1 Electrode Capacity : 1 / 16 " to 3 / 16 " Rated Input Amps : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Short Circuit Input Amps : . . . . . . . . . 66 UNPACKING AND CHECKUNG CONTENTS SET - UP INSTRUCTIONS received by the purchaser Remove all items from the This Craftsman welder is shipped complete in one carton carton and identify item as shown in the exploded view illustration These " Loose Parts " should be accounted for In order to facilitate packaging , certain items have been before discarding any packaging material . removed at the factory and must be assembled when LOOSE PARTS LIST Key No . Part Name O . ty . i t 1 WeldingHelmet ( Partially assembled ) . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 Helmet band assembly ( Not Assembled ) . . . . . . . . 3 Electrodecableassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I 4 LooseParts Bag - Containing the following items : Electrode Holder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Work Clamp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Screw , Hex . - Hd . , 1 / 4 - 20 x 3 / 4 in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Nut , Hex . , 1 / 4 - 20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Washer , Flat 17 / 64 in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Loci { washer , 1 / 4 in 1 3 4 ASSEMBLY TOOLS NEEDED , , lOiwncrehnchScrew ( mderidvieurm ) ATTACHING ELECTRODE HOLDER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TO ELECTRODE CABLE I . Grasp the electrode holder and locate the slotted head , handle locking screw near the mid - point of the insulating handle Loosen this screw approximately two turns , or until the handle can be slipped off the electrode bolder . . 2 Do not remove this screw completely . Slide tile handle off electrode holder and insert end of electrode cable assembly through the handle . The electrode cable is the one with insulation stripped from one end 3 Using a screwdriver , back out the slotted - head set screw , located near the end of electrode holder until the end of screw does not protrude into the wire socket in the end of holder 4 . Make sure the wire strands on stripped end of electrode cable have not been " frayed " Twist together with fingers if necessary . 5 Insert stripped end of electrode cable into electrode holder and tighten the slotted - head set screw very firmly 4
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_ i _ i ii _ ' _ i 6 Slide the handle back into place on electrode holder and position it until the hole in handle is directly over thew head of handle locking screw Tighten the scre clockwise @ just enough to secure the Inandle on electrode holder ATTACHING THE WORK CLAMP SCREW TO THE WORK CABLE 1 . Attach the terminal on end of work cable to the work clamp , at the hole near the nose of the clamp with the 1 / 4 - 20 x 3 / 4 - inch screw , 1 / 4 - 20 nut , 17 / 64 - inch flat washer and I / 4 - inch Iockwasher furnished in the loose LOCKWASHNUTE _ HWORKCABLE parts bag 2 _ Do not use either of the holes in handle ends of work clamp 3 _ Tighten the screw firmly enough to insure good contact and prevent the cable terminal from slipping on the clamp CONNECTING WELDER TO POWER SOURCE RECEPTACLE CAUTION : Do not attempt to connect this welder to a regular household outlet . Make sure the power - line voltage k GREENWIRE _ . Connect to ground bussin and frequency agree with the ratings shown on the selector plate attached to front of eabinet . Electrical connections between the welder and grounded 230 - volt , single - phase , 60 - cycle a - c power source should be Connect to hot wires o [ Q powerponet single phase system only made by a qualified electrician . All wiring must comply with the National Electrical Code ( ANSI C1 ) and local codes FUSES OR CIRCUIT BREAKERS 1 . Install an individual ( separate ) line for the welder with delayed action type circuit breaker or fuses in the line Electrical Code ( ANSI C1 ) and may not be adequate for For best results , this circuit should be as short as other loads Consult a qualified electrician before using for possible The size of the supply conductors will depend other loads upon their length as shown in the table below 2 Install 50 ampere circuit breakers or fuses Supply Conductor ( Incl . Extension Cords ) 3 Connect 230wolt power lines and ground as shown in Up to 30 feet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . No _ 10 AWG Copper figure 30 to 50 feet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . No 8 AWG Copper Over 50 feet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . No 6 AWG Copper 4 Use Sears Cat # 20691 Power Receptacle available through most Sears Retail or Catalog outlets or any NOTE - These conductor sizes are for use with a welder certified 50 amp , 250 volt , 2 pole , 3 wire , grounding having a rated input not more than 60 amps at 20 % duty type receptacle . cycle in accordance with Article 630 of the National
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OPERATnNG CONTROLS _ TAL TABLE AT THE SAME TIM REGARDING POTENTIAL SHOCK ON CABINET The name " dual range " arc welder is derived from the fact 1 CONNECT ONLY TO A GROUNDING POWER SOURCE that your new arc welder is equipped with two separate CONFORMING TO THE NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE welding ranges , ( A N S I C1 ) AND LOCAL CODES The beginner or less - experienced welder will find the REGARDING EYE INJURY 1 WEAR WELDING HELMET WITH NO 12 OR DARKER FIL - 30 - 140 amp range easier to use because it provides extra arc TER LENS MEETING REQUIREMENTS OF A NSI . Z87 , 1 . stability when welding with some of the " more difficult to 2 WEAR GOGGLES OR FACE SHIELD WHILE CHIPPING OR weld with specialty rods " which are prone to pop - outs BRUSHING SLAG . 3 KEEP OTHER PERSONS AND PETS OUT OF WORK AREA The 40 - 230 amp range requires less line ( input current ) REGARDING FIRE draw for any given amp setting and permits the use of the maximum amp settings with minimum effect on other ' KEEP COMBUSTIBLES OUT OF RANGE OF WELDING SPARKS electrical appliances , motors , and lights , on your electrical uSE FOR MINIMUM UsE FOR MAXIMUM system , LINE DRAW ARC STABILITY Either range may be used , depending on operator preferences when the electrode diameter permits AMP AMP Z RANGE / CONNECTING ELECTRODE AND WORK CABLES insert the tapered plug on the end of the electrode cable into the proper outlet jack depending on amperage required or operator preference . To insure a good electrical connection always twist the electrode plug slightly while inserting _ To remove the plug twist in the opposite direction while removing NOTE : If you extend the welding cables beyond those already supplied , they must be No = 4 AWG or larger to avoid an undue drop in welding current Do not extend cables over 50 feet , Connect the work clamp to the piece to be welded , ( to complete the electrical circuit ) or to the welding table itself provided it is metallic or will conduct electricity !
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OPERATING RNSTRUCTIONS We feel that welding with your new Craftsman dual range arc welder is as simple as A B C A Determine what diameter electrode should be used by gauging the piece to be welded on the material thickness gauge The fractional number directly beneath the bar chart dictates what the proper electrode diameter is for given thicknesses of metals You will note that a specific diameter of electrodes can be used on varying thicknesses of material . This is accomplished by adjusting the heat selector for more or less amperage • B Next verify the electrode diameter , by placing the bare portion of the electrode into the electrode diameter gauge on the right side of the cabinet Because electrodes are mass produced , there may be small burrs on the bare ends of the electrode Make sure the bare end of the rod is as clean as possible for accurate sizing , C , Finally , determine the type of electrode by the identification on the package or by the American Welding Society number stencilled on the coated portion of the electrode , bearing in mind the type of electrode you have chosen - E6013 or E7014 , and also its ' diameter ( as previously determined ) _ Locate that band on the amp scale There are two E6013 bands and two E7014 bands , use the band which coordinates with the amp range you have selected • Now loosen the heat selector knob and move the pointer until the fractional number matching your electrode diameter appears in the pointer window Tighten the heat selector knob Insert the electrode cable into the proper jack ( depending on the range selected ) , Connect the work clamp to the work . Wear Welding Helmet , Turn the On - Off switch to the " ON " position and you are ready to weld Because metals vary in their make up and the technique of each operator is different , you may find it necessary to increase or decrease the amperage output accordingly , CAUTION : Do not loosen and move heat selector while welding The duty cycle ratings bracketing the amperage scales are minutes out of 10 minutes is a 60 % duty cycle To avoid provided for your convenience and protection of your new possible overheating of the welding transformer , which welder _ Duty cycle is the performance level of the welder could shorten the life of your welder , Do Not exceed the based on a 10 minute time span . For example welding for 6 duty cycles listed on the nameplate 7
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TROUBLE SHOOTING WARNING : Removal of the welder cabinet top for any reason must be done by a qualified service technician . TROUBLE SHOOTING CHART TROUBLE PROBABLE CAUSE SUGGESTED REMEDY 1 . Use 50 ampere fuses of the delayed 1 . Improperly fused or Fan and welder do not action type such as " ' Fusetron " or protected _ operate , or continually " Fustat " or 50 ampere 240 volt blow fuses . circuit breaker . 2 Replace fuse , or reset the circuit 2 Blown fuse , or open breaker . circuit breaker _ 3 Turn switch " On " . 3 _ " On - Off " switch not " On " . 1 _ Have a voltage check performed by Welding current low 1 . Low line voltage , or weak , the local power company _ 2 . Check current recommended for 2 _ Welding current the electrode being used . setting too Iow _ 3 , Poor connections . 3 , Check electrode holder , work and electrode cable connections 1 _ Use AC or AC - DC rods Can't hold an arc . 1 Using a D . C . welding rod . 2 , Use rod of 1 / 8 - inch maximum 2 . Low hydrogen rod dian'leter , or ' smaller on 30 - 140 amp range . SERVICE TIPS FAN MOTOR No provision has been made for lubricating the fan motor , as extra large oil reservoirs provide lubrication for the life of the motor . SELECTOR PLUGS OR CONTACTS WARNING : Be positive you have disconnected the power supply to the welder _ If for any reason the selector plugs or mating contacts become burned or pitted , tiley should be cleaned - up with a fine grade of emery cloth or dressed very lightly with a fine file ,
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f A COMPREHENSIVE GUIDE FOR YOUR NEW CRAFTSMAN ARC WELDER AND WHAT iT W _ LL DO CONTAINS : INFORMATION ABOUT o VARIOUS TYPES OF RODS o USEFUL ACCESSORIES TIPS ON CUTTING , WELDING AND BRAZING , , , J Form No SP574 - 4 1 - ]
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IJELD gT Y © U SELF TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Your WelderandWhat It Will Oo . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 - 3 How the CraftsmanContactRodSimplifiesWelding 1 - 3 What HappensWhenYou Weld ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 - 3 ReadBeforaWelding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 LearnBy Doing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 - 5 PositionWelding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 - 11 Cast - IronWelding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 - 14 HardSurfacingWornCuttingEdges . . . . . . . . . . 1 - 15 TheTwin CarbonArc Torch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 - 16 CuttingandOther MiscellaneouOs perations . . o 1 - 17 Inert - GasMetal - ArcWelding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 - 19 Read this Manual carefully for additional welding information . SEARS , ROEBUCK AND COMPANYD AND SIMPSONS - SEARS LIMITE 1o2
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YOUR WELDER and what it will do = ° . Your CRAFTSMAN Arc Welderis a sturdilyconstructedend thoroughlytestedmachineengineeredto give many years of efficient trouble - free service . It is listed by Underwriters ' Laboratories , incorporated , which meansthat it passesall requirementsof safety , fire hazardand temperaturerise limitsasspecifiedin theirStandard for Transfer - TypeArc - WeldingEquipment , HOW THE CRAFTSMAN ELECTRODE SIMPLIFIES WELDING Craftsman Contact Electrode is self - starting - plus automatic restarting , The electrodestartson contacL Craftsman Contact Electrode is serf - cleaning . . . . . Under normal conditionstheslagremovesitselfasthe weld cools , Spatter is almost nen - existenL Craftsman Contact Electrode has an exceptionally good appearance _ With fine ripple , unusually clean , smooth appearance , andreducedslaginclusions CraftsmanContact Electrode depositsmore metal faster . Because the powderediron in the flux goesinto tile weld _ Arc Welding is the process of fusing two or more pieces of metal together to form one piece . It is accomplished by heating adjacent metal surfaces to the melting point with an electric arc , then adding a sufficient amount of molten metal to provide reinforcement and fill any vacant space between the parts being joined , as shown in the accompany - ing illustrations The arc is created when an electric current , regulated by a welding transformer , flows across an air gap between an electrode and the work being welded , The intense heat generated by the arc is ideally suited for welding , as it can be directed to affect only the part of the metal to be welded , Uniform heat from the arc , is acquired by keeping its length the same for a given rod size and current setting , At the instant an arc is " struck " , a portion of the base metal directly beneath it , is melted , resulting in a small pool of molten metal , some of which is forced out by the blast of the arc and deposited along the weld path , The depth of the crater thus formed , is the distance the weld will extend into the base metal and is referred to as the penetration of the weld Some of the electrode ( which consists of o metal rod sur - 2 they melt and flow toce , 1 Beth edges of the metal rounded by a flux coating ) is melted simultaneously with gether formingone pie are heated by the arc , the base metal and is carried by the arc to the liquid poolm until - - instantly - - This added metal combines with the base metal to for the deposited weld , During th _ s operation a part of the flux coating burns off and forms a gaseous smoke screen that completely en - velops the arc , protecting the molten metal from harmful effects of oxygen and nitrogen in the surrounding atmos - phere , The remainder of the flux coating that melts is carried to the molten pool where it mixes with the metal 3 mere molten metal and 4 fills the crater andcovers to combine with various impurities It then floats to the flux is added from the the top of the weld with surfaces to form a coating of slag which covers the de - rod , which - slag , posited weld metal , protecting it from the atmosphere and retarding its cooilng 5 This process continues the entire length of the weld I - 3
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READ 5EFORE WELDI NG When operating a welder , certain precautions must be taken to prevent minor injuries to yourself and others , Although injuries may not be serious or per - manent , knowing how to use the protective equip - ment to safeguard against them is the first step in learning to weld _ The effects of heat and light given off by the arc , while sparks than ordinary clothing . High top shoes ( not oxfords ) should be worn . If a great deal of welding is to be done , electric welding , may be compared to that of the sun's rays _ Even greater precautions are necessary for electric arc foundrymen's shoesare best . welding . Before starting a weld , caution anyone in the Precautions must also be taken to protect property and immediate vicinity against looking at the arc _ in case of equipment against flre _ A large fire extinguisher should be occidental eye injury , contact a physician immediately . within easy reach . The welding area should have a concrete or cinder floor , kept dry and clear of inflammable rubbish . To protect the face and eyes a heat - resisting , fibreglass Sometimes , it is necessary to weld close to a fuel tank . If helmet is used . The special tens , which allows the user practical , remove the part to be welded . If not , drain the to view the arc safely , is inserted into the framed opening tank and completely fill it with water . of the helmet The clear glass , which should be replaced Few tools , in addition to those supplied with the welding from time to time , protects the expensive special lens machine , are needed and most of them can be found in from breakage and weld spatter . The helmet is held firmly the average shop Two sawhorses supporting a 1 / 4 - inch in place on the head with an adjustable head band , thereby steel plate makes an excellent welding table A permanent leaving both hands free ° A close - flttlng skull cap should bench , using the same steel plate , can be made of angle be worn with the helmet ° As the helmet is used only when iron or pipe . A chipping hammer is used to clean slag off actually welding , a tilting arrangement permits it to be a weld and pliers will be useful for handling hot metak A swung up clear of the face . When the welding is resumed wire brush is used to clean the work before welding and a slight nod of the head tips the helmet down over the face . remove small pieces of slag after chipping _ To protect the eyes further while cleaning the weld , goggles should be worn by the welder and others working around Small pieces of mild - steel scrap iron , reasonably free of him _ Animals are also affected by the rays and should be rust and paint , should be used for practice welding _ Angle kept at a safe distance _ iron , bar stock or plate steel are good examples . Do not use scrap cast iron , high carbon or hardened steel as these To safeguard the hands against heat and weld spatter , metals require special electrodes and welding techniques . gauntlet - type leather gloves should be worn . A leather These should be set aside for future practice after com - pleting elementary practice lessons ° jacket will give better protection against the shower of 1 - 4
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LEARN BY DOBNG I 90 OFWELG OIRECTiON Experience has proven that short periods of practice at first attempting to weld . insert a small , mild - steel welding regular intervals are the best way to teach yourself how electrode in the electrode holder and connect the welding to weld . As learning to weld is simply a process of trial cables to produce the heat specified by the CONTROL and error , all practice work should be done on scrap metal panel Connect the ground cable to the work and set the that can be discarded . Do not attempt to make repairs on indicator in the current range recommended for the diameter of rod used . valuable equipment until you have satisfied yourself that your practice welds are of good appearance and free of slag or gas inclusions . Remember , what you fail to learn Any method of bringing the tip of the rod in contact with while practicing , must be learned through a series of the work , then quickly raising it until there is approximately mistakes and rewelds later am a 1 / 8 - inch gap between the rod and the work , will start an arc _ The easiest way for a beginner to strike an arc is to A comfortable body position is important when learning , scratch the tip of the rod a short distance on the surface of as tensed muscles will result in fatigue and lack of control . the work , as you would a match , then lift it ( quickly ) the re - Sit on a low stool and grasp the electrode holder in one quired 1 / 8 - 1nch ( fig . 1 ) . Another method is to strike the work hand with the cable drawn across the lap . Allow enough a hard blow with the tip of the rod and allow it to bounce slack to move the holder freely and yet keep the weight up to form the arc gap . The important thing is to strike and drag of a long length of cable from becoming tiring , the arc qelckly and not allow the rod to remain in contact with the work The ground connection is as much a part of the welding circuit as the cable and electrode holder _ A poor ground A common mistake often made by a beginner is to point connection can render the best welding equipment ineffi - the rod toward the work and , after lowering the helmet , cient . When using a table with a steel top , fasten the lug of feel slowly about until the tip of the rod touches the work . the ground cable to it securely with a bolt or C < lamp , so that This always results in sticking or " freezing " of the rod any piece of iron placed on the table top will be propedy which produces a direct short circuiL When this occurs the grounded . If a steel table is not used , connect the ground rod can be loosened by bending it from side to side while cable d _ recfly to the work with a ground clamp or bolt pulling on the holder ( fig 2 ) . If this fails , turn the welder off _ The electrode must be released in a matter of seconds Select a fairly large piece of steel plate approximately to avoid unnecessary heating of the welder or damage to 1 / 4 - inch thick and clamp it to the table top to prevent it the flux coating on the rod from lifting , should the electrode stick or " freeze " when , ' / , ' II'U ] I Figure 1 Figure 2 \ \ To strike an arc , scratch the Should the rod stick or \ , , ' , / \ / " freeze " bend it from side end nf the red ne the plate \ / and then quickly raise ap - to side while palling upward I on the rod ho _ er . proximately 1 / 8 - inch , 1 - 5
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Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 3 Figure 4 To widen the head , work the Fill the crater , when starting To lay a weld bead only two Watch the weld puddle to movements are used , dowfi - a new rod , by striking the red from side to side slight keep the slag from flowing ward and in the direction the arc at A then moving to 8 ty , with a slow , zigzaggmg in front of it , causing inclu - crescent - shaped motion weld is to he laid . and back to C position sions and gas pockets After laying a number of beads , try " working " the rod If difficulty is experienced after repeated attempts to maintain an arc , check the ground connection for proper from side to side slightly ( fig . 6 ) This movement should contact with the work If this does not help , increase the be slow and not wider than the diameter of the rod being welding current Also check the rod size , as larger rods used . Experiment with different current settings , rod sizes require higher current settings . and rates of travel . . Compare results with welds shown in the diagrams ( fig , 9 ) . Practice striking and maintaining an arc for a few seconds , then snap it out by rapidly pulling the rod away from the Too low a current setting tends to deposit the bead on top work _ Repeat this operation until the arc can be started of the plate with very little penetration . The arc sound will and the gap maintained as uniformly as possible . In a short time you will find the arc length can be controlled by be an intermittent crackle with irregular sputtering Too the crackling or " frying " sound which may be recognized high a current setting ( for the size of the rod being used ) by gradually shortening the arc until it sputters irregularly wiII provide sufficient penetration but the bead will be thin as though it were going to " choke out ' * and stick - - then and undercut in places . The arc makes a hissing sound and slowly lengthening the arc by pulling the rod away from the rod becomes red hot before it is half used . the work until it snaps out _ Somewhere between these two extremes the steady crackllng sound of a proper arc length If travel is too slow it will pile up a wide , heavy bead with will be heard _ good penetration but with overlap of the weld metal on sides without fusion _ A large area surrounding the weld is To lay a weld bead , only two movements are used , a heated to a high temperature which produces distortion , steady downward feeding of the rod to maintain the correct even on a simple weld If the rod is moved too fast the arc length and a slow travel in the direction in which the small bead will result w _ th little more than melted base weld is to be lald ( fig . 3 ) _ Watch the weld puddle and metal . An extremely long arc causes the rod to melt off in arc length , and move the rod steadily in a straight llne as globules , with little or no penetration , and a very irregular the back end of the crater fills up ( fig 4 ) . The slight angle weld surface The arc produces a hissing sound . of the rod will keep the flux or slag flowing over the deposited weld metal to form a protective coating . If the A good weld laid with correct current setting , speed and arc rod is moved too slowly the slag will flow in front of the length will produce a surface that is rippled uniformly , with puddle and be trapped in the weld , producing inclusions the same width throughout its length , and well formed and gas pockets . crater . The cross - sectional view shows it to have good pene - tration and no undercut or overlap . Lay a bead approximately four inches long . After allowing it to cool slightly , remove the slag coating , which covers the top of the weld , by scraping along each edge of the weld with a cold - chlsel foJowed by wire brushing until it is bright and clean _ Inspect the surface of the weld carefully before I I starting another _ The surface of a good weld is rippled unlformly , which results from a steady rate of travel and uniform arc length _ If the scrap plate used is small , it will become very hot after laying a few beads . This will alter welding conditions which could be very confusing to a beginner Have several scrap pieces handy so each may be allowed to cool before laying a second bead , When starting with a new rod , chip slag from the crater Figure 7 Figure 8 and strike the arc at the forward end as shown at " A " in Lay the weld beads about A pad of weld metal is builtof figure 5 , Then move the rod to " B " and back to " Ci " at up by running a series one inch apart , ffemove the about twice the normal rate of travel to give the rod and beads in layers at right slag and examine each weld angles to each other , before starting the next base metal time to heat up for proper fusion 1.6
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CURRENTTOO LOW TRAVELTOO FAST Arc is difficult to maintain . Small bead undercut in Vurylittle peflctrationHigh some places . Rough top bead , and little penetration CURRENTTOO HIGH ARC TOO LONG Wide thin bead , undercut , Surface of weld rough Crater pointed and long , Rod melts off in globules Rod hurns off very fast , Arc makes hissing sound . TRAVELTOO SLOW NORMAL CONDITIONS Metal piles up . making a Uniform ripples on surface wide heavy bead , over ° of weld , Arc makes steady lapped at sides in places crackling sound , Figure 9 Practice laying beads approximately one inch apart until a good weld can be produced with all the different rod sizes the welder will handle ( fig , 7 ) . After becoming pro - ficient in running a bead , build up a pad of weld metal , Clean each bead before laying the next and make sure they are fused together ( fig . 8 ) Run the second layer at right angles to the first and the third at right angles to the second , etc _ , _ sntil a pad approximately 1 / 2 - inch thick has F _ gure 10 been built up This type of welding is used to build up round or flat surfaces or reinforce parts that are rusted thin _ To avoid distortion when building up the end of a shaft , run the beads parallel to the axis and lay each successive bead on the opposite side as shown by the numbered steps in figure 10 . Cover the entire shaft with weld metal for the desired length . If the place to be welded is not at the end of the shaft , weld around it and turn the shaft slowly to keep the weld puddle in the flat position ( fig _ 11 ) . Clean off the slag after each bead , then machine the shaft to proper size . 1 - 7
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FLAT WELDING SLIGHT / / St ; EEl " GAP / , METAL k _ _ _ J \ BACK - UP STKIP Figure 4 TACK Figure 3 • WELOS REINFORCEMEHT Figure 5 Flat welding includes all types of joints in which the weld Figure 6 is horizontal , and the electrode is fed down as in the practice welds of previous pages The five types of joints in figure 1 can be welded in the flat position Butt welds on llght material should be practiced first on scrap stock _ Use 16 - gauge mild steel sheet metal ( approxi = mately 1 / 16 - inch thick ) and 5 / 64 - 1ech rods with the welder set at approximately 30 to 50 amperes , Butt edges of metal Figure 7 together and tack - weld approximately every three inches ( fig . 2 ) _ ( Tack welds are small beads 1 / 4 to 3 / 8 - 1nches in length _ ) Place bars of scrap iron under ends of the work to provide an air space above the table . Simply move the rod in a straight llne directly above the edges to be joined . If the weld burns thro . ugh in places , reduce the welding cur - rent or increase the rate of travel . Some difficulty may be experienced in starting the arc at these low current settings However , once the arc is started , there wlll be sufficient heat to make a sound weld . After laying a bead , turn the work over and inspect the underside which should also have a small uniform bead . To prevent burning through where the edges are not butted tightly together , move the rod back and forth with short quick strokes in the direction of the weld to bridge the gap and give the metal in the crater a chance to solidify ( fig 3 ) . Butt welds on sheet metal lighter than 18 gauge should not be attempted by the beginner without the use of a over and weld a similar bead on the other side ( fig . 7 ) A back - up strip ( fig 4 ) . This consists of a bar of copper higher weidlng current can be used on this side as there is clamped tightly against the underside of the seam to absorb no danger of burning through and fusion with the first the heat of the arc and prevent the weld from burning bead will be assured through To assure complete penetration with butt welds on 8 - gauge metal or heavier , a 1 / 16 to 3 / 32 - 1nch gap Although butt welds can be made on steel plates up to should be allowed between them ( fig . 5 ) insert a wedge or 3 / 8 - inch thick , with a 295 - ampere machine using 1 / 4 - 1nch screwdriver between the plates when tack - welding to main * rod , the same results can be obtained with the 180 and tain the gap , then turn the piece over , so the tack welds are on the underside _ 230 - ampere machines if edges of plates are beveled ( fig . 8 ) Metal of almost any thickness can be welded in this manner Use enough current to melt edges of plates to a depth of by depositing a number of beads , one on top of the other until the groove is completely filled = If the plate can be at least one - half their thickness Clean off the slag and welded from both sides , always use a double bevel ( fig _ 9 ) _ inspect it for smoothness , penetration and height of rein - If only one plate is beveled , the angle should be at 45 de - forcement Agood weld should havea relnforcement slightly more than flush with the surface ( fig 6 ) Turn the plate grees ( fig 10 ) 1 - 8
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Run the first pass on beveled plates with a 5 / 32 - 1rich rod and use as high a current as you can handle to obtain a UNDERCUT GASPOCKET small bead on the underslde _ If this is not done , insufficient penetration will result , as shown in figure 11 . Be sure to clean each pass before laying on the next All beads are la _ d by moving the rod in a straight llne with no weaving or slde - to - side movement _ On the last or reinforcing pass , EHT PENETRATION a weaving motion must be used to obtain a wide weld that Figure II will completely cover preceding beads . For the beginner , the slde - to - side movement ( with a slight hesitation at each end ) will produce a smooth top without undercut or overlap Select several practice welds of different thicknesses and cut them into 1 - 1 / 2 - inch strips . Clamp each strip in a vise Figure 12 and bend it at the weld ( fig . 12 ) _ If it breaks through the weld , study it to find the cause of failure Corner welds are made on light sheet metal by running a single bead along the top , after tack - weldlng at three - inch intervals to prevent warping ( fig 13 ) _ if numerous gaps are present , a back - up strip may be used , On heavier Figure 13 metal two passes may be necessary and , if the design permits , a smaller pass can be lald on the underside . Beveling may be used to advantage on the thicker metals FgLLET WELDS I I WELD BREAKINGD THEWEL Figure 4 Fi9ure 6 WELD Fillet welds are used to join two pieces of metal with sides or this type should always be at least four times their size in edges at right angles to each other The size of such a length ; that is , a 1 / 4 - inch fillet weld should never be less weld is based on the leg length of the largest isoscelesright than one inch long , The direction in which the load is applied triangle that can be inscribed within the cross sectional to a weld greatly affects its strength , which can be clearly area , as shown by the dotted - line triangle ( fig 1 ) . The demonstrated by breaking the weld ( fig 4 ) A joint so size of a fillet weld may also be measured with a square roaded should always be welded on both sides with fillets and ruler , subtracting 1 / 32 - inch from all dimensions under equal to the plate thickness ( fig 5 ) If this cannot be done , 3 / 16 - inch and 1 / 16 - inch from all over 1 / 4 - inch ( fig . 2 ) bevel the plate to assure complete penetration and position For example , a 1 / 4 - inch fillet weld should measure 5 / 16 - the work at a 45 - degree angle if possible . inch This will offset any inaccuracy due to the slight radius For practice , tack - weld three pieces of scrap iron together at the toe of the weld and allow for concavity of the bead . to form a cross ( flg _ 6 ) Use a 5 / 32 - inch rod with high current and hold it as indicated in the front and side views . Move When a fillet weld is stressed to its maximum capacity , failure will usually occur through the throat section ( fig . 3 ) the rod at a steady even pace along the seam without any Therefore , the strength is determined by the throat dimen - side - to - side movement and deposit one inch of weld for sion multiplied by the Fength of the weld Finished welds of each inch of rod melted . The surface contour of a good weld 1 - 9
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ROD SIZE UNBERCUTf _ P _ , , - CENTER _ OF SEAM Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 11 Figure 10 INTEBMII _ ENT WELOS I ' _ ! EXCESS BLA STAGGERED Figure 13 INTER - MITTENT WELOS Figure 16 Figure 17 LAPWELDS WELDON BOTHSIDES LAPWELDS AT ENDOF JOINT Figure 14 Figure 15 will come with experience . If the arc is advanced too fast , should be nearly flat with a slight radius at the sides or or held too close to the vertical plate , undercutting may toes _ Avoid excessive concave or convex surfaces of the result ( fig . 12 ) . Too slow travel will cause overlapping and fillet ( fig _ 7 ) Undercuts and colddaps are caused by not an extremely dose arc or low current will produce a bead holding the rod in the center of the seam ( flg _ 8 ) _ if the with a convex surface ( fig . 13 ) . To check the penetration and desired fillet weld cannot be made with a single pass , soundness of the bead , break some of the welds for inspec - several passes are used to build it up to required size ( fig _ 9 ) . tion , as shown in figure 4 _ Slag must be cleaned from each pass before depositing the next . Fillet welds over 1 / 2 - inch in size are rarely used When making a lap weld , care should be taken not to melt because joints requiring more strength can be made more too much of the upper corner on the top plate ( fig . 14 ) economically by beveling and groove - welding , followed Some melting will take place , but proper advance of the by a small concave fillet weld to provide a radius in the rod will cause the weld metal to build up and blend into the corner _ top surface . On sheet metal , hold the 3 / 32 - inch rod almost perpendicular and move the arc rapidly . Welds of this Horizontal fillet welding is used when the side or edge of type should be wider than they are high , somewhat like a flat bead ( fig _ 15 ) A slight discoloration on the underside one member of the joint is in the vertical position particularly of the lower sheet indicates good penetration , On heavy for small single - pass welds where the work cannot be tilted . metal , a 3 / 8 - inch fillet weld can be lald in one pass with a For practice , tack - weld two pieces of scrap together to 1 / 4 - 1nch rod using a 295 - ampere machine However , with form a tee - joint ( fig . 10 ) _ Use a 5 / 32 - inch rod held at smaller machines , the same weld or larger can be made by angles indicated , and direct the arc into the corner of the joint . The arc length should be somewhat shorter than for building up with a number of passes ( flg _ 16 ) _ When flat fillet welding _ To assure penetration at the root , use the welding long narrow pieces , stagger the welds in short intermittent beads , first on one side then on the other side , highest welding current that can be handled ( fig 11 ) _ to minimize distortion ( fig _ 17 ) . Good penetration is of prime importance and appearance 1 - 10
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_ i _ _ ¸ _ _ _ POSMTION WELDING weld , run a few practice beads to get the feel of the arc _ Tack - weld a piece of scrap iron to an old practice plate so it is positioned vertlcal ] y ( fig 3 ) . Use l / B - inch rods for the first welds and a current of about 75 to 115 amperes BUTT WELD Experiment with various amperage settings until you are using the highest current you can handle Hold the rod at right angles to the plate laterally , with the tip pointed up at the angle shown in figure 3 Start the weld at the top of the plate and move the rod in a straight line downward The correct rate of travel can be determined by gradually reducing the speed unti ! molten metal in the puddle can no longer be kept in place Then , increase the speed slightly while watching the puddie , arc length and angle of the rod A short arc provides better control of the molten meta ! Follow the same procedure with 3 / 32 and 5 / 32 - inch rods It will be noted that the larger the rod the more difficult it is to control the puddle For this reason smatler diameter rods are always used for position welding in order to derive the greatest benefits from your welder , you should practice until you can make a welded iolnt Lap or tee - joints are made by simply directing the arc into in almost any conceivable position . The ability to do this the cornel of the joint as in fiat welding and moving the is especially useful when making repairs on machinery as rod down the seam at a steady pace Butt welds may require the amount of welding in most cases is small and does not more practice , as there is a tendency to burn through on warrant disassembling the parts to weld them in the flat light gauge material if this occurs , continue until the seam position Welds of this type have been classified into three is completed and patch the hole by chipping the slag and groups according to their location and are referred to as wire brushing until clean Then , with slightly lower current , vertical , horizontal and overhead welds ( fig 1 ) Of the strike an arc on the weld directly above the hole and quickly three positions , vertlca [ welding will be used the most and bring the rod down to the lower rim of the hole to deposit should be practiced first . Skill gained in this type of weld a small amount of metal Raise the rod far an instant to will make horizontal and overhead welding easier let the metal solidify and repeat until the hole is welded Hold a long arc when raising , so there will be no metal VERTICAL WELDING deposited except when the rod is lowered Any hesitation The two methods of welding in the vertical position are in the rate of travel will cause a " burn through / ' if this commonly known as " vertlcal - down " and " vertlcal - up " happens repeatedly , lower the welding current welding ( fig _ 2 ) _ In the former the bead is started at the top and welded in a straight llne downward In the latter Leave a slight gap between pieces for butt welds on material the bead is started at the bottom and welded up , usually over 3 / 32 - 1nch thick _ Inspect the back side after welding with a weaving motion for small bead along the seam , indicating complete pene - tration ( fig 4 ) Butt joints on material around 3 / 16 - 1nch The chief difficulty encountered with any position weld is thick should be welded on both sides . keeping the molten metal in the puddle from falling out . To prevent this the arc must be held as short as possible and Vertical - down welds may be made on heavier material by the weld puddle kept fairly small so it will solidify rapidly laying in a number of passes ( fig 5 ) , however , this practice Verficabdown welding is the easiest to perform and is used is not recammended as it takes longer than a heavier single * on material up to 1 / 8 - inch thick Before attempting a vertical pass weld made by the vertical - up method VEBTtCAL - OOWNWELO VEffTICAL . DOWN WELDING / 3EB PASS DlflECTIOHEL - 2HO PASS BKV - IST FkSS A SMALL BEAD OH BACKSiDE [ HBICATES COMPLETEPEHETRATIOH Figure 4 Figure 3 Figure $ I - I1
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VERTICAL * UP 90 ° WELOIHG Figure 9 Figure 6 4 " , J Figure TO Use 1 / 8 and 5 / 32 - 1nch rods for all vertical - up welds and weave ( fig 9 ) . This will produce a " shelf " upon which additional metal is deposited _ ntermlttenfly as the welding start by running practice beads from bottom to top of a progresses . There should be a slight pause in the weaving 3 / 16 or 1 / 4 - inch plate , tack - welded in a vertlca _ position motion at the toes of the weld to avoid making a bead that Hold the rod as shown in figure 6 , noting that the angle is too convex . Materials 1 / 4 - inch and thicker must be bev - of the rod is not as steep as for vertical - down welding , but eled on one or both sides , depending upon the joint tilted just slightly ( approximately five degrees ) so the tip of the electrode points upward . Strike and hold o short arc Practice making a wide bead using a side - to - side weaving until a small amount of metal is deposited , then quickly motion with a very slight whipping action at each end to raise the rod upward with a wrist movement to increase the give the metal at each end a chance to solidify and avoid length of the arc at the top of the stroke ( fig . 7 ) . As soon undercutting along the sides of the weld ( fig 10 ) . This type as the metal deposited in the crater has solidified , bring the of bead is used on welds that require more than one pass rod down and deposit more metah Keep repeating this and is called the finish bead or " wash " pass . Hold a short whipping motion , while gradually moving the rod upward arc , making the bead approximately 3 / 4 - inch wide and and toward the plate as the electrode burns off . The length fairly light , Multiple vertical welds may be made as shown of the stroke will depend upon the amount of metal de _ in the series of diagrams , figure 11 _ posited and the welding current esed _ Keep the rod in constant motion once it has left the crater . The purpose of a long arc is to prevent any metal from being deposited except when the rod is held at the crater . If globules of molten metal drop from the tip of the rod when the arc is lengthened , either the current is too high or the rod has remained away from the crater too long . Care should be token not to break the arc at the top of the stroke . Do not deposit too much metal at one time as this will cause the weld to sag and result in a high narrow bead undercut along the sides . Better penetration can be had by the vertical - up method _ This can be demonstrated by ioinlng two pieces of 3 / 16 - inch metal with a butt weld , using the whipping motion . . Leave a gap between the plates and use a 5 / 32 - inch rod with a fairly high current , determined by experimenting . The whipping motion will melt the corners of the plate and form a pocket in which to deposit the weld metal ( fig _ 8 ) ° Burn the rod in deep so the crater extends through to the back side . After completing the weld , inspect the back side for the small bead , which indicates 100 - percent pene - tration . Butt welds on heavier materials should be welded on both sides . On materials up to 1 / 4 - inch thick , use the whipping motion on small single - pass fillet welds for lap and tee - joints Larger single - pass fillet welds can be made by the whipping motion Figure 11 with a slight side - to - slde weave added and combined with the up and down movement to make a triangular shaped 1 - 12
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_ / _ UHRERCUTFigure 14 Figure 12 DEPOSITMETAL OH GOWHSTROKE OVER - LAPPED I ] ACI ( - Up STRIP Figure 13 Figure 15 HORIZONTAL WELDING Horlzontal welding refers to one type of butt weld between one side _ if the seam has numerous gaps , use a back - up two plates in a vertlcal plane . For practice , set up a plate strip , albwlng a slight gap between edges of 1 / 8 - inch as for vertical welding and run straight beads across from thick metal and weld from both sides ( fig 15 ) , All metal 3 / 16 - 1nch thick and over should be beveled and welded left to right ( fig 12 ) _ Use the same current settings as for vertlcal - down welding and hold the rod as indicated with with a number of passes ( fig _ 16 ) Thoroughly clean each a short arc . Move the rod in a straight line and deposit bead before laying the next and use higher current than a light bead . The rate of travel will depend upon the current for single - pass welding used Too slow a travel will cause the bead to sag ( fig 13 ) . The appearance of a multlple - pass horizontal weld can be Practice with 3 / 32 , 1 / 8 and 5 / 32 - inch rods untll a wel ! improved by vertical down beads laid closely together . formed bead can be made with each size rod ( fig 14 ) . Use a swift circular motion to the right ; slowly downward Sheet metal up to 1 / 16 - inch thick can be butt welded from while welding ( fig 17 ) OVERHEAD WELDING Although overhead welding is generally considered diffl - celt , do not become discouraged , as it is being done every day by people who have taught themselves _ Once theeart of maintaining a short arc has been mastered , the rest will be easy Since there will be a shower of sparks , wear a leather jacket and keep the practice plate slightly higher than the top of your head when standing To keep sparks out of your glove , grasp the electrode holder as indicated in figure 18 and hold the rod in a nearly vertlcal position with a slight tilt to the right _ Drape the cable over your shoulder so its weight will not interfere with the use of the electrode _ Use 1 / 8 - 1nch rods and a current setting the same as for vertical welding , and move the rod in a straight llne without any weaving or whipping motions A reasonably fast rate of travel must be used to prevent the bead from sagging and undercutting along the edges . Vary the rate of travel and notice its effect on the size and appearance of the weld . When you feel you can run a satisfactory bead , try the slde _ to - side weaving motion and deposit a thin weld ap - Figure 19 proximately 3 / 4 - inch wlde _ The movement must be somewhat faster than for other positions to keep the bead from sagging ( This method of weaving is used only for the last pass on heavy welds where improved appearance is Fillet welds for lap or tee - joints are most common in the necessary ) overhead position . Tacbweld two pieces of scrap iron The whipping motion is used where a gap exists between together to form a tee - jolnt , and clamp in the overhead the plates as it provides better penetration with higher position so one plate is held vertically ( fig . 19 ) _ Hold the we ] dlng current , For practice work , set up two plates ap - rod at angles indicated and deposit a light bead from left proximately 1 / 8 - inch thick , allowing a gap between them to right without weaving or whipping movements . A slightly Burn in deep for good penetration with 1 / 8 and 5 / 32 - inch higher current than used for overhead butt welds will be rods , varying the plate size and gap distances . necessary to get good penetration at the root of the weld t - 13
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METAL BENDS WHEN COOLED DISTORTION TRENOS Figure 22 WHEN COOLING Egff W [ LO [ RtH Y _ LO F Figure 23 Figure 20 Figure 24 Figure 21 surrounding metal is free to move ( not clamped or tacked ) To simulate actua ! conditions tack - weld a piece with an it cannot resist these forces and bends ( flg _ 22 ) irregular edge to another piece leaving numerous gaps along the joint _ Use the whipping motion and deposit a The weld also contracts in width , as well as in length , fairly heavy bead , slowing down the rate of travel where tending to pull the plates together , resulting in locked - up the gaps are widest to build up a weld of uniform size stresses ( fig _ 23 ) This is not too serious when welding mild throughout its length . If the gaps are rather wide , fill them steel up to 1 / 2 - inch thick , as the ductility and elongation of first , clean off the slag and lay in a fillet weld the entire the metal will pelmit it to deform slightly to compensate length of the joint ( fig . 20 ) for these forces , and prevent cracking . On sheet metal and light structural members , long continuous welds may cause When you can lay single - pass butts and fillet welds you will considerable bending and resuJt in a badly distorted weld - be able to make an overhead weld of any size , as it is ment Fortunately most of this can be avoided by studying simply a matter of fusing a number of straight beads to - the effects of expansion and contraction , as related to the gether , one on top the other ( fig 21 ) job before welding and working out a procedure to follow . For example : first assemble the job with tack welds , and Weld appearance can be improved by grinding with a install temporary braces tack - welded to support parts that properly guarded abrasive wheel mounted on the end of a flexible shaft might bend . The braces can be removed after the job is cornpleted _ Lay the beads so the stresses will counteract or nbutralize one another , by running a short pass first on EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION one side then on the other , etc . Often the neutralizing weld is at the other end of the job Do not concentrate too many Metals expand when heated ; contract when cooled . In arc welds in one place but space them to distribute the heat welding , the deposited metal and edges being joined are and stresses throughout the entire structure Use intermittent molten and the metal surrounding the weld is heated suf - welds whenever possible _ If continuous welds are necessary ficiently to cause expansion _ When the deposited metal to make a water - tight compartment , use the back - step solidifies , it becomes a part of the plates ; but , being unre - method as shown in figure 24 , fusing each bead together stricte _ in its expansion in the molten state , it tends to at the end contract more than the heated surrounding metal If the CAST IRON WR = LD | NG weld or the casting _ Because of low tensile strength and Previous experience in handling the arc , plus good judg - lock of ductility it cannot bend , stretch or distort itseff to ment regarding expansion and contraction , will enable conform to the contraction of the weld metal In some cases you to weld gray cast iron successfully in a short time . it may be necessary to pre - heat the entire casting before Two types of electrodes are used , namely : non - machinable welding _ However , as most cast iron welding jobs can be for use in cases where the weld does not have to be done without pre - heatlng , this method will be considered machined , and machinable which deposits a file - soft weld first . that can be drilled or machined to close tolerances Non - machinable rods are used for most repair jobs such as The part must be free of rust , grease , paint or dirt ; cleaned cracked motor blocks , water jackets , pump and gear hous - by wire brushing , grinding or washing with solvent . The ings , etc . If the weld must be made across a machined crack should be beveled for penetration . If the parts are surface that need not be refinished to a close tolerance , broken apart completely , they may be ground on an abrasive the face of the weld may be ground flush with an abrasive wheel to a single or double bevel , depending upon the wheel . thickness of parts and whether or not the ioint can be welded from both sides . Do not bevel to a sharp edge along As cast iron is very brittle , care must be taken to control expansion and contraction , and thus avoid cracking of the the entire crack Instead , allow approximately 1 / 16 - inch 1 - 14
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of the fractured surface to line up the two pieces Tack - weld brush each bead before depositing the next Then continue or clamp parts in position If the crack has not separated to fill the groove with short weld beads as before , working the casting , a vee - groove can be chipped out with a dla - rapidly when depositing and peening the bead Allow plenty mond - polnt chisel Chip an inch or so beyond the visible of time for cooling . Examine the casting for cracks that may ends of the crack as it may extend under the surface . On develop during cooling periods if any of the beads crack , cracked water jackets , where only a sea ! is required , the chip them out and re - weld If cracking persists , preheat depth of the groove need only be one - half the thickness the entire casting slowly to a dull red heat with an oxyacety - of the casting . lene torch or blow - torch When the preheated method is used , the welding can be continuous After completing the Keep the casting as cool as possible and do not expect to weld , cover the casting with warm dry sand or slaked lime complete a weld in cast iron as rapidly as in the same length so it will cool slowly in mild steel Use a smaller rod and a slightly higher current than for the same thickness of steel . Lay a short bead , about Malleable iron is ordinary gray cast iron that has been heat an inch long , at one end of the crack and peen it immediately treated to give it a tough ductile outer skin The method of with a cross - peen hammer or blunt chisel to spread the welding is the same as for cast iron weld metal and relieve locked - up stresses , Do not strike the edges of the casting . Place the second bead at the opposite end of the crack and the next in the center , etc ( fig 1 ) r AllOW enough time between welding to permit your bare hand to be held on it Never use water or a blast of air to cool the casting Although cracks may not show up immediately , the locked - up stresses due to uneven cooling will cause the casting to fail after it is back in service _ Wire HARD FACING WORN CUTTltNG EDGES DRtHO OFF WEAVEDEARS PLOW SMALLBEAR - Figure 2 Figure 3 RARD EACIRR HA _ DEACIHR CULTIVATOR SHOVEL SOFTBASEMETALSTER SPIKE / WEARASWAYEA MILD , STEEL PATCD HARROW TRAHRAflDFACIDG WELDS Fieure 5 TOOTH . ' ULTIVATOR SWEEP Figure I must be deposited along the edge to build it up ( fig . 3 ) Excavating equipment , earth _ cutting farm machinery or Make beads heaviest where the wear will be greatest , but others such as plow shares , lister shares , cultivator shovels , avoid excessive build - up as the metal cannot be filed or sweeps , subsoilers , spike harrow teeth , tractor treads , ex - machined If shaping is required , heat the weld metal and cavating buckets , or any surface subject to abrasive action forge it . Smoothing and sharpening can be accomplished wil ! last much longer and require less sharpening when by grinding . their cutting edges are hard faced with hard surfacing For plow and lister shares , cultivator shovels and similar electrodes The arc welding process consists of depositing cutting points , deposit the weld metal on one side only a layer of abrasion resisting weld metal on the worn cutting which will result in a self - sharpenlng edge ( fig 4 ) The edges as indicated in red on the parts shown in figure 1 softer base metal on the other side will wear away first and Prepare the part for welding by cleaning the surface to be leave a knlfe - like edge of hard facing material Parts that welded by grinding it approximately 1 - 1 / 2 inches back must wear uniformly on both sides should be hard faced from the edge ( fig . 2 ) Position the part so weld metal can on both sides The condition of the worn part must also be be deposited in the flat position If the material is 1 / 4 _ inch taken into consideration If the part requires a number of thick or less , use a I / 8 - inch rod and as low a current as passes to bring it up to the desired thickness , use mild - steel possible that will still permit the metal to flow out smooth welding rods first ; then cover with deposited metal from and fairly thin ( 1 / 16 to 1 / 8 - 1nch thick ) Weave the rod hard surfacing rods If the edge is entirely worn away , a from side - to - side in a crescent - shaped movement and de - steel patch ( cut to fit ) may be welded in place with mild - steel posit a bead about 3 / 4 to 1 - 1nch wide Several passes electrodes , then hard faced ( fig 5 ) To prevent distortion ( lald side - by - slde ) may be necessary where the worn sur - when hard facing small parts , peen the deposited weld metal before it cools faces are quite wide In some cases a small straight bead 1 - 15
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To prepare the torch for use , connect its two cables to the TRUMB KHOB ground and electrode cables of the welding machine . Grounding of the work is not necessary as the operation of CARBORELECTRODES the arc flame is entirely independenL With the thumb knob on the handle in the " off " position , insert two 3 / 8 - inch car - bon electrodes in the holders and clamp in place at approxi - mately one - half their length ( fig , 2 ) Do not clamp them on or near the ends opposite from the arc as this will cause overheating of the carbons When tightening the clamping CORRECTTO screws , be careful not to apply too much pressure on the GROUNDAND : SCREWS ELECTRODE carbons , as they are very brittle and break easily Use only CABLESOF ELECTRODETiPS A C WELDER enough pressure to hold them firmly in place . If the tips of the carbons do not llne up with each other , an adjustment Figure 1 may be made by turning the longest of the electrode holders slightly ; too much turning will loosen it , and make it neces - sary to disassemble the torch to again tighten it properly , Do not make any turning adlustments wl h the s , id ng holder Work ordinarily done with a gas weldlng torch is possible as this would spoil the contact tension in the switch . with the twln - carbon arc torch connected to an A . C welder , The carbon - arc flame is similar to the flame of a gas weld - To strike the arc , turn on the welding machine and set it for ing torch in that it provides heat by radiation , rather than approximately 70 amperes Lower the welding helmet and by direct arc between work and electrode , This flame heat hold the torch up to silhouette it against the light of a win - greatly widens the scope of work possible with the arc dow Slowly move the thumb knob forward until contact welder for brazing , soldering , welding of non . ferrous metals is made between the tips of the carbons . This will start the and localized heaffng for bending , forging and hardening , arc Then immediately move the knob back to increase the gap between the carbons The actual distance can be deter - The arc torch ( fig . 1 ) consists of an insulated handle wlth minecl with a little practice When the carbons are too close two projecting carbon electrode holders , one of which is ad - the arc flame will have a sharp crackling noise As the justable to permit striking and breaking an arc at the carbon distance between the carbons is increased , the crackling tips . A thumb knob on the handle performs the adjustment will change to o soft purring sound which indicates the best and operates a shut - off switch built into the handle There arc flame There are two heat zones and the small inner are no valves or gouges that require fine adjustment as zone is by far the hottest , having an estimated temperature with an oxyacetylene torch . The same protective equipment of 9000 degrees Fahrenheit ( fig , 3 ) used for ordinary arc welding is used when operating the carbon - arc torch . The shape of the flame gleatly influences the way in which it must be used For example : on beveled work the torch A wide selection of flame heats may be had by varying should be held parallel to the groove so the flame will reach the current and size of the carbon electrodes , Although the the bottom ( fig 4 ) , If held at right angles to the groove , the actual temperature of the arc remains the same for any flame straddles the groove and the heat will not reach the current setting , the volume of transferable heat increases bottom ( fig 5 ) . Filler rods , as for gas welding , must be used with an increase in amperage ° However , amperages in on joints of this type . excess of those given below will only cause short carbon life . 1 / 4 - ira carbons . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 to 40 amperes The soft , bushy flame is pressureless and has no tendency to blow the mohen metal This is a distinct advantage when 5 / 16 - im carbons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 to 65 amperes welding thin sheet metal Joints on light material should be 3 / 8 - im carbons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 to 90 amperes INCORRECT FLAME POSITION CORRECT FLAME POSITION Figure 5 Figure 4 Figure 2 Figure 3 , r . , , , , , 1 - 16
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bent and edges fused together by melting down the excess metal to form a bead ( fig 6 ) No filler rods are required Figure 6 The carbon - arc torch is ideally suited for brazing and soldering small tubing + Cast and malleable iron can be brazed with excellent results A bronze filler red and common brazing flux are used Rust , paint or grease must be cleaned from the area to be brazed If it is a butt joint , such as a crack in a casting , B grind or chip out a beveled groove as for arc welding Apply the heat from the arc flame gradually by passing it over the metal surrounding the joint + When the casting has become warm , concentrate the arc flame at the joint The important thing to remember when brazing cost iron is never to heat the edges of the joint to the melting point The temperature of the work should not exceed the melting paint of the filler rod The carbons are held as close to the work as possible without causlr _ g the metal to bubble Hold the filler rod in the left hand and heat the end of it slightly aluminum alloy , use aJumlnum flux The filler rod should by passing it through the arc flame Then dip the heated be of the same analysis as the work if regular welding end in brazing flux Raise the torch slightly and deposit rod is not available , strips of the parent metal may be used some of the flux at the part of the joint being heated . When A back - up strip should be used when welding thin material the surface of the heated metal takes on a shiny or wet appearance , the filler rod can be applied Small diameter carbons and low amperage setting are used for soldering . The torch is held so the work is just within Do not put the rod directly in the flame , but hold it on the the visible edge of the flame . Apply the soldering flux and work and let the heat of the edge of the flame and the work play the flame over the work until it is just hot enough to melt the rod Deposit only enough metal to fill the part of + melt the solder . If the joint is to be sweat - soldered , tin the the joint that has been coated with flux As the metal is surfaces to be iolned , then press them together and reheat , being deposited , move the ! orch along the joint slowly , adding mare solder at the edges of the joint applying flux to the rod and joint as required One of the most practical uses of the arc torch is heating Copper and copper - base alloys such as bronze and brass metal for bending , forging , etc , Set the torch for a wide , may also be brazed , but as their melting temperatures are enveloping - type flame and apply the heat to the bottom of so close to the melting point of the filler rod , the process the work ( fig 7 ) Since a red heat is not visible through the in many cases becomes one of welding rather than brazing dark weldlng glass , the helmet must be raised periodically A bronze filler rod and common brazing flux are used . so the work can be inspected to avoid overheating To pro - Most non - ferrous metals can be welded by manipulating tect the eyes from the rays of the arc , hold the torch to the torch and filler rod in the same manner as for brazing , one side and above your head The carbon - arc torch is with the exception that the edges of the joint are heated to not recommended for welding mild - steeL However , it may the melting point before depositing the filler metar . If the be used for brazing mild - steel if the metal is too thin for work is a copper alloy , use common brazing flux If it is an regular metallic - arc welding CUTTgNG and other miscellaneous operations CUTTING WITH THE ELECTRIC ARC \ \ \ \ Arc cutting is simply the continuation of a " burn through " such as you probably experienced when practicing with light sheet - metal welding When this action is accelerated by using extremely high currents , it becomes an efficient method of cutting metals Although the edges of the cut ST _ TT surfaces are not as smooth as when cut with a saw or d , . . - MOLT ] _ H METAL CU ffEI1E STEEL oxyacetylene torch , there are many cases where such pre - COHTA _ HER cision is not required . Ordinary mild - steel welding rods may be used The current will vary with the type and thick - ness of the material . In general , high currents increase the F _ gure 1 speed of cutting but also increase the rod burn - off rate and width of the cut 117
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BOLT AND RIVET CUTTING MOVERODUPANO - - _ . Removing rusty bolts or rivets is an easy job with an electric DOWNVERTICAL _ L : Y . . . , _ _ ' _ arc welder The arc is struck on the head or nut of the bolt and worked around in a slight circular movement until the head is completely melted off ( fig . 4 ) . A punch is then used to drive out the remaining part . The bolt or rivet con be removed by heating the head almost to the melting point , then quickly shearing it off with a cold chisel Care must be taken not to cause the bolt to become welded to the metal , _ - - ' _ " ETSTARTRE CUH HOLE PIERCING Another usefu ] application of the welding arc is piercing Figure 2 holes in metal Coated metallic electrodes ore best far this purpose because of their small size and insulation afforded by the coatlng _ The process is extremely fast and To make a trlal cut , place a bar of steel approximately a surprisingly clean circular hole can be made For practice , 1 / 4 - inch thick on the table so that one end projects over place a piece of scrap iron 1 / 4 - inch thick ( or less ) on the the edge . Use a 3 / 32 - 1nch rod and a current setting of table and allow it to project over the edge as for arc around 140 amperes HoJd the rod as shown in figure 1 and cutting Use a 3 / 32 - 1nch rod and the same current as for strike an arc on the tap corner at the edge of the bar where cutting _ At the place where the hole is to be pierced , strike the cut is to be made , Feed the rod into the molten puddle an arc and hold it until a molten puddle is formed _ Then and keep the crater burning through as the rod is moved push the electrode down against the molten puddle and across the bar . To catch the molten metal , place a metal force it through the plate _ It is possible to hold the electrode container on the floor directly under the cut against the melted plate because the metal core meffs off faster than the coating _ The coating ( not the rod ) touches When cutting metal heavler than 1 / 4 - 1nch , the arc is started at the bottom corner and worked up and down vertically the molten metal ( fig 5 ) 1 " he gap maintained by the pro - as shown in figure 2 , advancing the bottom of the cut truding coating prevents the metal core of the electrode slightly ahead of the top of the cut to permit molten metal from sticking or freezing to the plate to run out more easily _ if a smooth edge is desired , the if a larger diameter hole is desired , first pierce a hole as pieces can be ground on an abrasive wheel . Electrodes described . Then , holding o fairly long arc , melt the edges designed especially for cutting may also be used _ of the hole away by moving the rod around it ( flg _ 6 ) . Holes of almost any diameter can be mode _ To pierce a hole through material thicker than 1 / 4 _ inch , work from the REMOVING SEAMS underside In addition to cutting , the electric welding arc can be used for beveling the edges of material to be welded , gouging out cracked welds for rewelding or removing tack - welds . HEATING The surface of the metal being worked upon should be ap - The carbon arc provides a convenient method for localized proximately in the vertical position , or tipped slightly toward the arc ( flg _ 3 ) _ Start at the bottom of the seam to be gouged heating of aJI metals . S _ mply strike an arc on the part to be heated and " play " it across the surface until the required out and work upward . The rate of speed will depend upon temperat _ ure is reached the depth of the groove and the amount of metal removed . GQUGIRG Figure 6 Figure 3 Figure 4 ! - 18
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mNERT - GAS METAL - ARC WELDING ( Nonconsumabne ) GROUNDWEODRKPIECE ANYCRAFTSMWAEHLDER ALLCABLES ORWORKTABLE MAYBEUSEDWiTHHF , BSHOULBDEORTLE TOELECTRODE / ATTACHMENT OKEPSTHSSI HOLDER / / ASP GROURCBLAMP ( Donotex - ceed12 - f / 2gth [ ] D feet [ nlen ) O _ K . F . ATT WELDER _ / \ GROUNCDABLE I GROUND o o WELDER CABINET CABLE MUSTBENDER GROU _ , , o g 230VOLT _ = = = = = = = = = E _ C6OYCLE SINGLPEHASE WELDINGCABLETO WELDER HiGHFREQUENCY ACORDOWELDER ATTACHMENT Figure I Figure 2 Alloil , grease , paint , rust , dirt or other contaminants must HIGH FREQUENCY ATTACHMENT be removed either by mechanical means or by the use of The Craftsman , High - Frequency Attachment may be used vapor or liquid cleaners , Files , chisels and stainless wire with any Craftsman welder or other single - phase , trans - brushes may be used Grinding is not recommended , Liquid former _ type welder of high quality construction having an cleaners such as naphtha , mineral spirits , alcohol , acetone AC , or AC / DC power output Tungsten inert gas ( T . LG . ) and methyl - ethyl - ketone can be used All surfaces must be welding has many useful and advantageous applications wiped dry with a clean cloth , Cleaners should not be used as described in the following paragraphs _ In order to use after a joint is assembled prior to welding , the T . LG . process with an AC welder , a high - frequency Striking the arc may be accomplished as follows : attachment must be provided _ Figure 1 shows a typical hookup using this high - frequency attachment with a Crafts - 1 _ Touching the electrode to the work momentarily and man welder _ When not using the TJ . G , welding process , the quickly withdrawing it a short dlstance _ ( DC power source ) high - frequency attachment also permits easy " arc " start . ing and greatly improved results with many hard - to - weld 2 Use of an apparatus which will cause a spark to jump rods ( low hydrogen rods ) as well as making the welding without touching the electrode to the work . ( AC power operation much easier to perform . source with high - frequency unit attachment ) The use of a hlgh - frequency attachment makes possible the The high - frequency arc stabilizer provides for this latter establishment of an arc without touching the electrode to method of starting the arc . Such devices are not required the work . , Once the arc has been established , it isstabilized with DC , consequently it is usually necessary to touch the by the hlgh - frequency output _ This is essential in the T . I . G . electrode to the work to start the arc . process in order to avoid contaminating the tungsten elec - For manual welding , once the arc is started , the electrode trode or the work . . holder is held with the electrode positioned at an angle of about 75 degrees to the surface of the weld puddle as PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION shown in figure 2 To start the welding , the holder is usually The necessary heat for inert - gas welding ( nonconsumable ) moved in a small circle until a pool of molten metal of suit - is produced by an electric arc maintained between the non - able size is obtained . Once adequate fusion is achieved at consumable electrode and the work - piece . The electrode any one point , a weld is made by gradually moving the used for carrying the current is usually a tungsten or tungsten electrode along the parts to be welded to melt the adjoin - alloy rod _ The heated weld zone , the molten metal and the ing edges progressively , adding filler rod as required . nonconsumable electrode are shielded from the oxidizing Solidification of the melted metal follows progression of effects of the atmosphere by a blanket of inert gas fed the arc along the joint and completes the welding cycle _ through the TJ _ G . torch and the weld is made by applying Material thickness , joint design and weld characteristics the arc heat until the abutting edges of the work - places are desired will determine whether or not filler metal should melted , adding filler rod if necessary _ The resultant pool be added to the joints _ When filler metal is added during of molten metal , upon solidifying , joins the edges of the manual welding , it is applied by hand feeding the filler rod members togethen The process may also be used for adding ( from the side ) into the pool of molten metal in the region metal to surfaces , Iocally - meltlng and spot - joinlng parts . of the arc . Filler rod is added in essentially the same manner A thorough cleaning of the surface to be welded isrequired _ when welding by the oxyacetylene method . 1 - 19
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( 3 ) ADD ' _ ( 2 ) MOVE THEPUDDLE TILLERMETAL TORCH DIRECTION _ , / , / / / / / / / / / / , ' , / , / , , ' / , , / / / / , _ , / / 27 _ ( 1 ) DEV _ . LOP OFWELD " . _ _ / / / I / I / / / f / / / / / / / / / / / / J f WOREPIECE ( 5 ) MOVETORCH ADDITIONOF TOLEADINGEDGE _ FILLERMETAL ( VERTCAL - _ s ° ' _ I ( 4 ) REMOVEROD POSITIO _ OPTOD L / 7 _ / / / / / / / / / / / / _ ; / / / / / / / / / / / _ / _ Figure 3 electrodes are alloyed with small percentages of thorium The filler rod is usually held at an angle of approximately or zirconium . Such electrodes have the advantage of greater 15 degrees to the work and slowly fed into the weld puddle . current - carrying capacity for a given diameter , a more One of the most commonly used techniques for feeding filler stable arc at low current values , and longer life with less rod is shown in figure 3 . Another method , used most often deposit of tungsten in the welds . in multlple - pass welding of vee joints , is to press the filler rod into the vee groove in line with the weld and melt it TYPES OF GAS TO USE along with joint edges _ Still another method , used fre - quently in making large welds , is to feed filler metal con - Either argon , helium , or a mixture of the two can be used with tinuously into the weld puddle by oscillating the filler rod the T . I . G process . Argon is used most frequently because : and arc from one side of the weld to the other ° The filler rod moves in one direction while the arc moves in the 1 . It provides general suitability with a wide variety of opposite direction , but the filler rod is at all times in close metals proximity to the arc and feeding into the weld puddle . 2 . It maintains a stabilizing influence on the welding arc . Joints may be welded by the T . I . G process include all 3 _ It costs less ( due to the lower flow rates required ) . standard types , such as square abutting edge , vee butt , tee and lap connections , It is seldom necessary to bevel edges Helium is generally used when welding heavy metal sections of material 1 / 8 - 1nch or less , although heavier materials are because it provides greater weld penetration . Mixtures of usually beveled . Whenever joints are beveled , filler ma - argon and helium are useful when a balance of these char - terial must always be added _ acteristics is desired _ Argon is generally supplied in K - cyllnders , having a capacity The accompanying tame provides a guide to the type of current recommended for welding some typical materlals . of approximately 238 cubic feet at a pressure of 2200 psi , or in T - cylinders , having a capacity of approximately 330 Electrodes used for the T . I . G . ( nonconsumable ) process may cubic feet at a pressure of 2640 psi . Purity of commercial be pure tungsten or tungsten aBoy . Pure tungsten electrodes argon ranges between 99,95 % and 99 _ 99 % were formerly used exdusively _ At this time , however , many Matetla ] CurrentSelectionfor Inert - gas Magnesiumup to _ i _ - imthick Magnesiumabove _ ' iG . in thick ( nonconsumablew ) elding Magnesiumcastings AIuminumup to _ 32 . in thickk Aluminumover _ - in thic Aluminumcastings Stainlesssteel Brass alloys iliconcopper ; liver Higb - chlomiumn , ickelbase , high . temperaturealloys Silver cladding Hard facing Castiron Lowcarbonsteel , O015 to 0 030 int . Lowcarbonsteel , 0.030 to 0.125 in High . carbonsteel , 0015 to O , O30in High . carbonsteel , 0030 in andup DeoxidizedcopperP * Where aIternating current _ s recommended as a second choice , use about 25 % higher current than that recommended fat DCSP , t Co no use _ lte nang cu rent on tigEhlly jigged p _ rts . Use brazing flux or sl con - bronze _ x o _ / 4 , nch and h ck _ 1 - 20
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WELDgNG RGD $ PEC FmCATmONS AWS E - 6Gll MILD STEEL AC - DC GENERAL APPLICATIONS : Farm Equipment o Sheet Metal o Car and Truck • Body and Fender = Pipe o Tanks o Maintenance o Jigs and Fixtures o Cabinets o General Repairs oStructuralSteel SIZES AND HEATS ( AMPS ) Diameter . . . . 1 / 16 " 3 / 32 " 1 / 8 " 5132 " 3 / 16 " 7132 " " t / 4 ' * Flat 20 " 55 20 - 80 75 " 130 100 - 175 t50 - 225 175 - 250 200 - 375 Vertical 20 " 55 20 " 65 75 " 115 100 - t50 150 - 200 Overhead 20 - 55 20 " B5 75 " 115 100 - 150 SPECl FICATIONS MEETS AmericanWeldingSociety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Class : E - 6011 THESE Military . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MIL - E - 15599C REQUIREMENTS _ ' American Bureauof Shipping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Class : E - 5011 Physical Properties of Deposited Metal : As Welded Stress Relieved Tensile Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70,000 to 75,000 psi 65,000 to 70,000 psi Yield Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60,000 to 65,000 psi 55,000 to 60,000 psi % Elongation in 2 - inches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 . % . . . to 25 % 30 % to 35 % Reduction in Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 % to 55 % 65 % to 75 % DESCRIPTION The AWS E - 6011 is an AC - DC ( reverse polarity ) electrode with a special coating that provides strong fluxing action for high quality welds , even in dirty , rust covered , galvanized or plated steels , An extremely stable , spray type penetrating arc , is produced that is easy to start and restart after interruption . It is a versatile electrode , producing welds far beyond the requirements of its A . WS . classification It adapts to a wide variety of jobs due to the wide range of amperage settings at which top quality results are obtained Features : Deeper Penetration - Fast - Freeze Puddle - Greater Arc Stability . WELDING PROCEDURE : Weld with AC or DC ( reverse polarity ) Strike the arc by brushing rod tip lightly at the point where weld is to be made . After the arc is established and weld material is deposited , concentrate on holding a short arc that is just long enough to keep the electrode from touching the molten metal , In the flat position , use a slight oscillating motion as you advance , In vertical position , on sheet steel start at the top of the seam and weld down , This provides a more rapid speed of travel , lower penetration , and minimum warpage When welding overhead use a straight stringer bead or a circular motion Keep the molten pool as small as possible _ Use small electrodes overhead , none larger than 5 / 32 diameter _ 2 _ 1
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AWS E - 6013 MBLD STEEL AC - DC multi - purpose all position GENERAL APPLICATIONS : Farm Equipment o Car and Truck o Sheet Metal o Pipe o Tanks e Boilers = Structural Steel o Maintenance Repairs o General Repair Work SIZES AND HEATS ( AMPS ) 3 / 32 " 118 " 5 / 32 " 3 / 16 " 1 / 4 " Diameter . . . . . . 5 / 64 ' " 200 " 375 20 - 75 75 - 130 100 - 175 150 - 225 Fiat 20 - 55 20 - 55 20 - 65 75 - 115 100.150 150 - 200 Vertical 20 - 55 20 _ 65 75 - 115 100 - 150 Overhead SPECl FICATIONS MEETS THESE Military . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MIL - E - 15509C _ ) mericanWeldingSociety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Class : E - 6013 REQUIREMENTS & MI L - E - S043A American Bureauof Shipping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Class : E - 0013 Stress Relieved Physical Properties of Deposited Metal : As Welded 05,000 to 70,000 psi TensileStrength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75,000 to 00,000 psi 50,000 to 00,00g psi Yield Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62,000 to 07,000 psi 27 % to 35 % % Elongation in 2 - inches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 % to 29 % Redaction in Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 % to 55 % 00 % to 70 % DESCRIPTION The AWS , E - 6013 is a general purpose mild steel electrode for use with AC or DC It produces a very stable , easily handled arc throughout a wide amperage range _ The moderately penetrating and easily directed arc provides excellent results in all positions ( fiat , vertical or overhead ) and is ideal for single pass horizontal fillet welds _ Spatter loss is low , as the weld metal solidifies quickly producing a closely rippled deposit with good appearance . Even though it is designed for production welding in mild steel fabrication , this rod is excellent for multi - purpose use where sound durable welds are required , The arc is easily started , even at low amperage settings for light gauge steel , yet is stable at the high amperages needed for higher welding speeds , and for heavier sections . Use with AC or DC ( see recommended amperages ) Hold a short arc , just long enough to keep the electrode from touching the molten metal . In flat position single pass fillets or butt welds may be made with or without weaving . Weld from bottom up on vertical welding of heavy sections Welding down on light material or fillets produces excellent results Use 5 / 32 - inch or smaller electrodes for overhead work , making either stringer or weaving beads . 2 - 2
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WELDWNG ROD SPECIJFICATiONS HARD SURFACING AC - DC medium chrome - carbon electrode GENERAL APPLICATIONS : Tractor Grousers and Rollers o Scraper Blades o Agri - cultural Implements o Plow Shares o Hitches • Power Shovel o Dipper Teeth and Drive Sprockets = Coal Cutters e Conveyor Rolls • Mining Buckets • Rock Crushers o etc , SIZES AND HEATS ( AMPS ) Diameter . . . . 3 / 32 " 1 / 8 " _ 5 / 32 " 3 / 10 " 7 / 32 " 1 / 4 " Amperes 55 - 85 100 - 130 1 130 - 150 175 - 200 175 - 250 225 - 275 SPECl FICATIONS THESE Military . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MIL - E - 19141C MEETS REQUIREMENTS Physical Properties of De _ positedMetal As Welded Condition ( Rockwell " C " 46 - 50 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450 - 500 Brinell Hardness After Cold Working ( Rockwell " C " 50 - 54 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 500 - 550 Brineli Hardness DESCRIPTION The Medium Chrome - Carbon rod is a hard - surfacing alloy steel electrode with a coating of powdered metals and flux . When welding , this special coating combines in the arc with the steel core wire to give an extremely hard weld - meta ! deposit Deposited weld metal requires no heat treatment for maximum strength , ductility , and wear resistance , Annealing or heat treating will not soften the metal deposit , which is not machinable , but may be hot forged to any desired shape , Deposited metal has a very fine grain and is free of slag and porosity The metal is tough and highly resistant to wear and impact The rod is designed for use with either AC or DC ( either polarity ) Hold a medium short arc and deposit the metal with a weaving motion Excellent welding results are obtained in either the vertical or flat position , WELDING PROCEDURE : Gdnd the surface to clean and remove shallow cracks , rust , or other foreign material Cracks too deep to be removed by grinding should be gouged out w _ th a cutting torch or cutting rod Use the " drag " technique to deposit weld metal , to thin edges when desirable or weave a wider bead , or use a " free " arc , 2 - 3
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WELDmNG ROD SPECmF CATmONS AWS E - 7014 CONTACT AC - DC for welding of mild steel GENERAL APPLICATIONS : Sheet Metal Fabrication and Repairs e Machinery Fabrication • Construction Equipment Repairs = Storage Tanks e Shipbuilding Fabricating Structural Shapes and Heavy Equipment = Equipment and Heavy Pipe Welding SIZES AND HEATS lAMPS ) Diameter . . . . 1 / 18 " 3 / 32 " 1 / 8 " 5 / 32 " 3 / 16 " 1 / 4 " 14 " 14 " 14 " Length 12 " 18 ' " 18 " Amperes 70 - 90 90 - 110 130 - 105 190 - 210 200 - 250 250 - 350 SPECl FICATIONS MEETS _ k THESE _ ) AmericanWeldingSociety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Class : E - 7014 REQUIREMENTS JV American Bureauof Shipping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C / ass : E - 7014 Physical Properties of Deposited Metal : AsWelded TensileStrength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72,000 psito 78,000 psi Yield Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60,000 psito 69,000 psi % Elongation in 2 . inches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 % to 28 % DESCRIPTION The AWS E - 7014 is an excellent electrode for the inexperienced or experienced welder _ Starts on contact with smooth surge - free arc , also restrikes instantly . This Craftsman electrode has powdered iron in the coating which makes welding easier and faster _ The slag is easy to remove in most casesself - peeling as the weld cools _ Ideal for fixture welding where weld appearance and lack of spatter is important . The amount of slag permits use in all welding positions WELDING PROCEDURES : Weld materials should be clean . Best results are obtained when fit - up is good . Either AC or DC current may be used . When arc is established , deposit metal holding a short arc or place electrode in contact with work , . 2 - 4
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Jm = LDBNG ROD SPECNF CAT ONS MACHINABLE CAST RON AC - DC machineable welds on all cast irons GENERAL APPLICATIONS : Cylinder Blocks o Crankcases o Valve Seats e Defective Castings o Gears o Sprockets e Casting Repairs in General o Garages o Farms o Shops SIZES AND HEATS ( AMPS ) Diameter 3 / 32 " 1 / 8 " 5 / 32 " 3 / 18 " 48 - 85 75 - 130 100 - 150 130 - 175 Amperes DESCRIPTION This electrode uses a nickel core wire , and produces a fully machinable weld without pre - he . _ ting the casting , Cast irons can be joined to steel , nickel alloys and copper , This electrode operates with AC or DC ( reverse polarityL It has very stable arc characteristics It is recommended for automotive repairs , such as cylinder blocks , crank cases , valve seats and other cast iron parts In maintenance and repairs it is used on gears , sprockets , and many farm machinery parts WELDING PROCEDURE : Remove all dirt and grease from work piece before starting to weld , A cutting electrode may be used to burn a groove along the break where the weld is to be made This cutting electrode removes the grease and scale , and then seals in any oil soaked into the cast iron Use the lowest amperage that gives good fusion During cooling , peen hammer the weld to relieve strain and stress CUTTIING ROD AC - DC quick , inexpensive , easy cuts through all metals GENERAL APPLICATIONS : Cutting e Piercing _ Gouging = Scarfing o Beveling = etc SIZES AND HEATS ( AMPS ) Diameter . . . . . . 3 / 32 " 1 / 8 " 3 / 16 " 100o150 Amperes - AC 80150 75 - 130 130 - 175 5 / 32 " Amperes - DC 150 - 250 - DESCRIPTION For piercing , gouging , cutting , and scarfing Excellent for removing old welds in preparation to rewelding _ Also used for beveling cracks in castings or removing sharp edges prior to welding Needs no oxygen or special equipment to cut carbon steels , stainless steel , manganese steel , cast iron , etc Recommended for the owners of all arc welders _ AC or DC WELDING PROCEDURE : Place etectrode in holders so that it's positioned like a lance in the direction of travel The angle between the electrode and work metal should not exceed 15 ° Strike arc at starting point , Push electrode along the line of cut , forcing the molten metal ahead and away If deeper gouge is required , repeat procedure untg the desired depth has been reached 2 _ 5
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REPAIR PARTS PARTS LIST FOR CRAFTSMAN 230 AMP WELDER MODEL 113o201372 15 42 43 27 45 45 34 41 27 \ \ 44 \ 19 / 35 11 10 23 24 \ 32 \ \ 12 27 13 = Transformer not replaceable ° 29 28 2 - 6
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PARTS LIST FOR CRAFTSMAN 230 AMP WELDER MODEL 113.201372 Always Order by Part Number - not by Key Number Key Part I ( ey J Part No . No . , Description Description No . . i No _ r 28 130284 1 61331 Plate , Selector + Holder , Electrode 2 61276 29 51439 + Clamp , Work Spacer 3 61277 Pointer 30 _ STD 522507 * Screw , Hex Hd , 1 / 4 - 20 x 3 / 4 4 STD 511110 * Screw , Pan Hd 10 - 32 x 7 / 8 31 61234 Cable Assembly , Work 5 61278 32 6TD 601105 Knob Assembly * Screw , Ty T Pan Hd 10 - 32 x 1 / 2 6 61279 33 60314 Bushing * Screw , Truss Hd . . I / 4 - 20 x 5 / 8 7 ! 60325 34 STD 510607 Washer , 3 / 8 x 1 - 3 / 8 x 3 / 64 * Screw , Pan Hd 6 - 32 x 3 / 4 8 61280 Cabinet , ] ' op 35 61295 Cable Assembly , Electrode 9 STD 611005 * Screw , Type AB Pan Hd No 10 x 1 / 2 36 30332 insulator , Plug STD 541025 10 * Nut , Hex 1 / 4 - 20 37 61171 Plug , Selector 11 STD 551225 * Lockwasher , 1 / 4 int . . 36 61086 Relief , Strain 12 STD 551025 * Washer , 17 / 64 x 47 / 64 x 1 / 16 39 61329 Cabinet , Bottom 13 STD 541006 * Nut , Hex 6 - 32 40 STD 510692 * Screw , Pan Hd . 6 - 32 x 3 / 16 14 30307 Connector , Cable 41 STD 600805 * Screw , Pan Hd . 8 - 32 x 1 / 2 15 61143 Cord 42 30254 Switch 16 61332 43 STD 551008 Slide , Shunt * Washer , 3 / 16 x 3 / 8 x 1 / 32 17 61335 44 STD 551010 Bracket , Guide * Washer , 13 / 64 x 5 / 8 x 1 / 32 18 STD 601103 * Screw , Ty T Pan Hd 10 - 32 x 3 / 8 45 STD 541008 * Nut , Hex 8 - 32 19 61333 Guide , Shunt 46 60309 Washer , 1 - 1 / 64 x 1 - 1 / 2 x 1 / 64 20 61334 47 61115 Spring Block , Contact Mounting 21 61384 48 61116 Core Assembly , Moving Contact , Selector Plug o 22 Transformer Assembly 49 61117 B _ ock , Contact Mounting Motor 23 61314 50 6TD 541110 * Nut , Hex 10 - 32 24 61302 51 STD 551110 Bracket , Fan * Lockwasher , No 10 25 STD 501102 * Screw , Socket Set 10 - 32 x 1 / 4 52 61186 + Helmet 26 61315 - 61298 Blade Assembly , Fan Bag Assembly , Loose Parts 27 STD 551108 Lockwasher , # 8 - 61337 Owners Manual ( not illustrated ) * Standard Hardware Item - May be Purchased Locally , + Stock Item - May be secured through the hardware department of most Sears Retail Stores or Catalog Order Houses , OTransformer not replaceable , _ 7
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ISears I 230 AMP DUAL RANGE ARC WELDER SERVICE Now that you have purchased your 230 amp arc welder , should a need ever ' exist for ' repair parts or service , simply contact any Sears Service Center and most Sears , Roebuck and Co . stores . Be sure to provide all pertinent facts when you call or visit MODEL NO . The model number ' of your 230 amp arc welder will be found on a plate attached to your ' welder , at the rear ' of the cabinet . 113.20137 2 HOW TO ORDER WHEN ORDERING REPAIR PARTS , ALWAYS GIVE THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION : REPAIR PARTS PART NUMBER PART DESCRIPTION MODEL NUMBER NAME OF ITEM 113,201372 230 AMP ARC WELDER All parts listed may be ordered from any Sears Service Center and most Sears stores . If the parts you need are not stocked locally , your order will be electronically transmitted to a Sears Repair Parts Distribution Center for handling . Sold by SEARS , ROEBUCK AND CO . , Chicago , IL 60684 U . S . A . Part No 61337 Form No SP4271 - 4 Printed in USA 6 / 81
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