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Back To Craftsman Welder       Model: 113.201392 or 113201392 Craftsman 295 Amp Dual Range Arc Welder
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Serial Number . . . . . . . . . . . . ModeJ and serial number may be found at the rear of the cabinet . You should record both CRRFTSMRHo model and serial number in a safe place for future use . 295 AMP DUAL RANGE CAUTION : ARC WELDER Read ® assembly SAFETY iNSTRUCTIONS ® operating carefully • repair parts Sold by SEARS , ROEBUCK AND CO . , Chicago , IL 60684 U , S . A . Part No . 61341 _ : ' _ ' . _ _ ,
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SAFETY iNSTRUCTiONS TO OPERATOR For your own protection , read and observe all instructions of the arc can react with solvent vapors to form mcluded nn this manual as well as the following specific phosgene , a highly toxic gas , and other irritating safety precautions . products . 1 . PROTECTION FROM ELECTRICAL SHOCK h . Unprotected specators must be kept clear of the welding area doe to the harmful nature of ultra - wolet a . Do not let bare skin or wet clothing come between and infra - red arc rays , welding sparks , and welding the following combnnatlons fumes and gases Electrode and Electrode Holder 3 . FLAMMABLE AND EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS a . Remove flammable and explosive mater _ al at least 35 feet from the welding arc to prevent welding sparks Work Clamp Work Piece Metal Work Table or molten metal from starting a fire . Keep a type 80 volts exast between these parts ABC f _ r _ extinguisher within easy reach when welder is onq I b , Welding on or near containers wh , ch hold combustibles Wear dry hole - free , clothing , gloves and shoes to can cause an expiosmn , even when they have been protect and insulate the body . cleaned For = nforn _ atcon purchase " Safe Practtces for Welding and Cutting Containers that Have Held b Take special care to insulate yourself from ground Combustrbles " ( A6 . 0 - 65 } from the Amerfcan Welding using dry = nsulatuon ( such as dry wood } of adequate Society 2501 Northwest Seventh St , Mnam _ FJorlda s = ze when welding m damp Iocat , ons , on metal floors 33125 or gratings , and in positions ( such as s _ tting or lying ) where parts or large areas of your body can be in C . When not welding , place the electrode holder where it contact w _ th possible grounds . is _ nsulated from the work clamp , work p = ece , or work table . Accidental grounding can cause c . Manntain the electrode holder , work clamp , welding overheating of the cables and wetder , creating a fire cable and welding machine in good , safe operating hazard condition . d Never connect the work cable or clamp to any object d . Do not use welding electrode as a cigarette hghter but the work piece or metal work table . Connectnng e Connect the welder only to a source of electrical to other objects such as budding ground can create a power meeting the requ , rements , including fire hazard grounding , of the National Electrical Code ( ANSI C1 ) and local codes 4 . PREVENTATIVE MAINTENANCE f . Electrode coating may be eleetncaUy conductnve - use welding gloves when ehangnng electrodes . a , Never apply power to the welder wnth any part of the " cabinet " removed . Position on - off switch in " Off " 2 . EYE AND BODY PROTECTION posltnon and disconnect welder from the power supply before donng maintenance work inside the a Use helmet , filter , and cover plate complytng with machine . Removal of the welder cabinet should be ANSI Z87 1 to protect your eyes and face from done only by a qualifned servnce techmcran sparks and the rays of the arc when welding or obserwng open arc weld = rig b . Before connecting the welder power cord to the receptacle , check the following b Always wear safety goggles with side shields complying with ANSI Z87 1 when Jn a welding area , 1 Inspect the power cord and welding cables for cuts or when near slag chipping operation or burns and make sure blades and ground pm on the plug are stranght c . Wear od free protective garments , such as leather gloves , heavy shirt , cuffless trousers and high shoes 2 Inspect " On - Off " sw _ tch fever for cracks or broken parts . d . Protect other near - by personnel w _ th suitable non flammable screening . 3 Inspect electrode holder law insulators for cracks or broken parts e Provide ddequdte ventilation in the welding area , particularly when welding on galvanized , lead or e . Never weld anything on or to the welder cabinet , as a cadmeum plated steel , and other metal whtch produce burn through may cause transformer failure toxic fumes d For additional safety information , purchase copies of f When worktng above floor level , protect yourself " Practice for Occupational and Educational Eye and from a fall should you get a shock . Never wrap the Face Protection " ( ANSI Z87 . 1 ) , " Safety _ n Welding electrode cable around any part of your body and Cutting " ( ANSI Z49 . 1 ) , and " F _ re Protection in Use of Welding and Cutting Processes " ( ANSI'NFPA g Do not weld m Iocat = ons close to chlorinated No 51B ) from the Amerncan Natnonal Standards hydrocarbon vapors com = ng from degreasmg . [ nstntute , 1430 Broadway , New York , N Y 10018 cleaning , or sprawng operations The heat of the rays 2
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READ AND OBSERVE THE INSTRUCTIONS APPEARING ON THE WARNING LABELS FOUND ON THE INSIDE OF THE WELDING HELMET , SELECTOR WARNING - - FOR YOUR SAFETY _ AFTSMRn PLATE , AND CABINET , REGARD ; NG 80 VOLT pO ' _ ENTIAL _ HOCK AT ELECTRODE 12 _ 0 _ fy for € _ c1 _ _ _ Pr _ ecb0n a _ , _ hr _ l _ nlU _ o _ rays from _ C _ dhng _ ARNIrJG Pro _ e _ t _ ou , _ lf and _ ther _ R _ d and un _ , stalld thl _ Idbel _ U ' , IES _ rJD GASE _ _ arl be _ l _ r , ge , v _ s to _ , l _ r ne _ h _ _ pC RA ' g _ an 1nitre eves _ nd bdrr , , kin _ LECTRIC R £ GARDING POTENTIAL SHOCK 0 _ CABI ¢ _ ET _ , hPn _ m _ lil _ S _ v _ ce _ mpacl re SHOCK , n r , ll • _ ead _ rd understand the m = m _ fJ _ l _ r _ , , n , tr _ ¢ tlons • , _ u _ _ , _ , . _ _ _ • n _ y _ ur enlp _ owr • _ fet , praCtl _ eS 3rid serI _ L _ SI _ reduce pt01 _ CllOn - - • Feep y _ ur he _ d our _ t th _ f _ , , _ es REGARDI _ IG EYE _ NJU _ y • U , e en _ o @ h vent , lab , on eqhust _ tb _ _ rc o _ _ oth Inspe _ l rr _ quenll 7 , _ nd _ mm _ al _ l _ ro keep fu , _ e _ and qase , rr _ nl y _ r ble _ th , ng _ one and th _ _ ner _ l are _ • Wea _ correct eye eor _ ml uauy protect , on _ NOT REMOVE THiS L _ L FIEGARDFNG F _ ItE • See Am = r , _ n p _ uonal Sl _ n _ rJ Z49 I S _ fel _ , n ¢ , eld , l _ _ , 1 _ ( urr , , _ g m , _ h , hall b , the , _ er , c _ n ' _ eld , nc Society 2501 _ 71h St " 1 _ , _ , FL _ r , da _ 3125 OSH & S , r _ t _ a , lo H _ lhh _ ta _ cla , _ , ? gCFR _ 910 _ , l _ b _ e Tr _ rn U _ D _ pJrtn , e _ l _ _ f L _ bar LENS @ , _ asn , _ l _ n DC 2O210 SHADENO O0 NOT _ E _ O . E THIS L _ BEL WARNING " ARC WELDING CAN BE INJURIOUS TO OPERATOR AND PERSONS IN WORK AREA - READ AND UNDERSTAND OWNERS MANUAL BEFORE OPERATING WELDER FULL ONE YEAR WARRANTY ON CRAFTSMAN ELECTRIC WELDER If this Craftsman Electrm Welder fails to perform properly , due to a defect in material or workmanship , within one year from the date of purchase , Sears wdl repair It , free of charge Warranty service is available by simply returning the welder to the nearest Sears store or Serwce Center throughout the United States . Th _ s warranty gives you specific legal rights , and you may also have other rights which vary from state to state . SEARS , ROEBUCK AND CO BSC 41 - 3 SEARS TOWER CHICAGO . IL 60684 ; ELECTOR LOCKING KNOB MATERIAL LECTRODE DIAMETER GAUGE GETTING TO DUAL RANGE OUTLET JACKS KNOW YOUR ARC WELDER : TRODE CABLE AND ELECTRODE HOLDER WELDING WORK CABLE AND TABLE OFCONTENTS 6 OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS Operating Controls 7 2 Operating Instructions Safety Instructions to Operator • 3 Trouble Shooting Warranty 1 - 1 ARC WELD IT YOURSELF MANUAL 3 Getting to Know Your Welder 2 - 1 4 WELDING ROD SPECIFICATIONS Unpacking and Check m _ Contents 2 = 5 4 REPAIR PARTS Assembly 3
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SPECIFICATIONS Welding Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 - 295 amps Hertz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Primary Volts ( AC ) . . . . . . . . 230 Open C = rcult Volts ( Max . ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Amps Input ( Max . ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Duty Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 % to 100 % Fuse Requ = red ( Delayed Act = on Type ) . . . . . . . . . 60 Etectrode Capacity . . . . . . . . . . 1 / 16 " thre 1 / 4 " Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Single Over - all Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . 21 " x 14 ' " x 15 " UNPACKING AND CHECKING CONTENTS SET - UP I NSTR UCTIONS _ llustratton These " Loose Parts " should be accounted for before discarding any packaging matertal Th _ s Craftsman welder = s sh _ pped complete _ n one carton LOOSE PARTS LIST In order to facd = tate packaging , certain = terns have been removed at the factory and must be assembled when Key received by the purchaser Remove all = terns from the No . PartName Qty . carton and = dent = fy = tern as shown m the exploded view 1 Welding Helmet ( Partrafly assembled ) . . . . . 1 2 If ' _ l Helmet bandassembly { Not Assembled ) . . 1 3 1 Electrode cableassembly . . . . . . . 4 OwnersManual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 , , , 4 : , : 5 LoosePartsBag - Containingthefollowmg ttems ElectrodeHolder . . . . . ] 1 2 1 / 4 " Hex " ' L " Wrench . . . . . . . . . 1 Work Clamp . . . . . ! Electrtaal OutletBox 1 Screw . Pan Hd Ty " AB " N'O " 10x ' 1 " / 2 " " " 2 Outlet Box Cover . . . . . . ! GroundTerminal 1 Screw , Pan Hd 10 - 32 x 1 / 2 . . . . 1 1 Lockwasher , No . 10 . . . . . . . : Nut , Hex 10 - 32 . . . . 1 WELDER _ ' _ " " ' _ 4 5 Connection Label . . . . . 1 ASSEMBLYTOOLS NEEDED _ r 7 / 16 - inch wrench Screwdriver ( medluml ATTACHING ELECTRODE HOLDER TO ELECTRODE CABLE 1 . Grasp the electrode holder and locate the slotted head , handle locking screw near the rind - point of the insulating handle . Loosen th _ s screw approximately two terns , or until the handle can be shpped off the electrode holder . DO NOT REMOVE THIS SCREW COMPLETELY 2 . Sbde the handle off electrode holder and insert end of electrode cable assembly through the handle . The electrode cable = s the one with insulation stopped from one end 3 Using the socke [ he _ d wrench Isupphedl back oet the Hex head set screw , Ioca [ ed near the end of electlode holder untd the end of screw does not protrude into the wire socket m the end of holder . 4 . Make sure the wire strands on stopped end of electrode cable have not been " frayed " Twist together with fingers _ f necessary . 5 . Insert end of electrode cable into electrode holder and tighten the socket - head set screw very hrmly usmg the 1 / 4 " Hex " L ' " Wrench furnished 4
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6 Slide the handle back into place on electrode holder and pos _ t _ on tt untd the hole m handle _ s d _ rectly over the head of handle locking screw TLghten the screw clockwise _ lust enough to secure the handle on electrode holder ATTACHING THE WORK CLAMP TO THE WORK CABLE 1 Attach the terminal on the end of the work cable to the work clamp • 2 Do not use e _ ther of the holes m handle ends of work clamp . 3 T _ ghten the screw hrmly enough to insure good contact and prevent the cable terminal from shppmg on the clamp . 4 Remove octagon shaped electrical box from Loose Parts Bag Attach _ he box to the rear of the we _ det cabinet _ th the two sheet metal screws provided These screws must be bght Attach the ground terminal to the wall of the electrical box as shown using zhe 10 - 32 nut , screw and Iockwasher provided This connection must be t _ ght • %
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CONNECTING WELDER TO POWER SOURCE CAUTION : 0o not attempt to connect this welder to a regular household outlet . Make sure the power - line voltage and frequency agree with IN POWER £ ANEL . ratings shown on the selector plate attached to top of cabinet . Electrical connections between the welder and 230 - volt , CONNECT TO HOT WIRES OF single - phase , 60 - cycle AC power source should be made by A SINGLE PHASE SYSTEM , ONLY , CONNECT rO GROUND BURS a qualified electrician , A _ | wiring must comply with the MAKE CONNECTIONS INSIDE National Electrical Code ( ANSI C1 ) and The Local OUTLET BOX AND INSULATE pERkY IN ACCORDANCE ' / ITH Electrical Code , LOCAL CODE . INSTALL COVER , 1 . install an individual ( separate ) line for the we [ der with a fuse block m the hne . For best results , this circuit should cycle in accordance with Article 630 of the Nat _ ona { be as short as possible . The size of the leads will depend Electrical Code ( ANSi CI ) and may not be adequate for upon their length as shown in the table below other loads . Consult a quahfled electrician before us = ng for Supply Conductor ( incl . Extension Cords ) other loads . Up to 50 feet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . No . 8 AWG Copper Over 50 feet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . No . 6 AWG Copper 2 , install 60 ampere fuses , of the delayed - action type such as " Fustat ' " or " Fusetron " , m the fuse block NOTE : - - These conductor sizes are for use with _ wP ] der having a rated input not more than 60 amps at 20 % duty 3 . Connect 230 - volt power hnes and ground as shown . iii , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REGARDING FIRE OPERATING CONTROLS KEEP C _ tBU _ TIBLES _ JT OF RA _ JGE _ F V ELDI _ G _ FC _ K _ USE FOR MINIMUM US _ FOR MAXIMUM The name " Dual Range " arc welder tsderwed from the fact that your new arc welder = s equtpped with two separate welding ranges . ? he be _ jinner or less - experienced welder will f _ nd the 30 - 200 amp range easier to use because it provides extra arc stabdlty when welding with some of the " more d _ fhcult to weld with specralty rods " which are prone to pop - outs The 40 - 295 amp range requires less line ( input current ) draw for any given amp setting and permits the use of the maximum amp settings w = th minimal effect on other electncal appliances , motors , and hghts , on your electrtcal system . Either range may be used , depending on operator preferences when the electrode diameter permits CONNECTING ELECTRODE AND WORK CABLES Insert the tapered plug on the end of the electrode cable into the proper outlet jack depending on amperage required or operato _ preference To Insure a good electrical connectFon always twist the electrode plug slightly whde inserting . To remove the plug twist in the opposite direction whde removing . NOTE : If you extend the welding cables beyond those already supphed , they must be No 3 AWG or larger to avoid an undue drop in welding current Do not extend % cables over 50 feet Connect the work clamp to the mece to be welded , ( to complete the electrical circuit ) or to the welding table rtself provided it rs metalhc or wdl conduct electncl ty r
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OPERATING iNSTRUCTiONS We feel that weldtng wtth your new Craftsman dual range arc welder is as s _ mple as A B . C . A Determine what diameter electrode should be used by gauging the piece to be welded on the material thickness gauge . The fractional number d _ rectly beneath the bar chart d _ ctates what the proper electrode d _ ameter is for g _ ven thicknesses of metals You wgl note that a specific diameter of electrodes can be used on varying thicknesses of mater _ al , Th _ s _ s accomphshed by / adlustmg the heat selector for more or less amperage B Next verdy the electrode diameter , by placing the bare porbon of the electrode into the electrode d _ ameter gauge on the right s _ de of the cabinet Because electrodes are mass produced , there may be smag burrs on the bare end of the electrode Make sure the bare end of the rod _ s as clean as possible for accurate sizing C Finally , determine the type of electrode by the tdent _ ficatlon on the package or by the American Welding Soctety number stenctlled on the coated portion of the electrode , bearing in m _ nd the type of electrode you have chosen - E6013 or E7014 , and also _ ts ' diameter ( as prewously determtned ) Locate that band on the amp scale There are two E6013 bands and two E7014 bands , use the band which coordinates w _ th the amp range you have selected . Now loosen the heat selector knob and move [ he pointer untd the fractional number matching your electrode diameter appears m the pointer window . Tighten the heat seEector knob Insert the electrode cable mto the proper tack ( dependmg on the range selected ) Connect the work clamp to the work Wear Welding Helmet . Turn the On - Off swttch to the " ON " positron and you are ready to weld . Because metals vary m their make up and the techntque of each operator [ s different , you may find _ t necessary to increase or decrease the amperage output accordingly CAUTION . Do not loosen and move heat selector whde welding . minutes out of 10 minutes _ s a 60 % dut , , c , , , ele Tc a , c ! The duty cycle ratings bracketing the amperage scales are possible overheatlr _ g of _ he _ e _ dlng tTal , s { o _ q _ ' , _ ' _ h _ ' provided for your convenience and protection of your new could shorten the hfe of your , velde _ , Dc [ . Jo7 v < . - . _ , J tr welder Duty cycle is the performance level of the welder duty c , / c _ es t _ ied ON " h _ r - 213 _ D ' 3 _ _ " based on a 10 m4nutehrnespan Fo _ example wetdlng for 6
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TROUBLE SHOOTING WARNING : REMOVAL OF THE WELDER CABINET TOP FOR ANY REASON MUST BE DONE BY A QUALIFIED SERVICE TECHNICIAN . TROUBLE PROBABLE CAUSE SUGGESTED REMEDY Fan and welder do not 1 . Improperly fused or 1 . Use 60 ampere fuses of the delayed operate , or continually protected . action type such as " ' Fusetron " or blow fuses . " ' Fustat " or 60 ampere 240 volt mrcutt breaker . 2 . Blown fuse , or opeR 2 . Replace fuse , or reset the ctrcu _ t circuit breaker . breaker 3 . " ON - OFF " sw = tch not " ON " . 3 Turn switch " ON " . Welding current low 1 . Low line voltage . 1 . Have a voltage check performed by or weak . the local power company . 2 . Welding current 2 . Check current recommended for setting too low . the electrode being used . 3 . Poor connections . 3 Check electrode holder , work and electrode cable connections . Can't hold an arc . 1 . Using a D , C , welding 1 . Use ACor AC - DC rods rod 2 . Low hydrogen rod . 2 . Use rod of 3 ! 16 - inch maximum d = ameter , or smaller on 30 - 200 amp range or lower SERVICE TIPS FAN MOTOR : No provision has been made for lubricating the fan motor , as extra large otl reservoirs provide lubrication for the hfe of the motor . SELECTOR PLUGS OR CONTACTS : WARNING : BE POSITIVE YOU HAVE DISCONNECTED THE POWER SUPPLY TO THE WELDER . DO NOT REMOVE CABINET TOP OR SELECTOR PLATE . If for any reason the selector plugs or mating contacts become burned or pitted , they should be cleaned with a fine grade of emerycloth or dressed very bghtly w = th a fine file . 8
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t : RRFTSMRNo A COMPREHENSIVE GUIDE FOR YOUR NEW CRAFTSMAN ARC WELDER AND WHAT iT WiLL DO CONTAINS : INFORMATION ABOUT • VARIOUS TYPESOF RODS • USEFUL ACCESSORIES • TIPS ON CUTTING ° WELDING AND BRAZING J Form No . SP574 - 4 _ ' _
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r . . _ o _ . ; _ _ _ , _ _ _ , _ j _ _ _ _ , _ , L _ . TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Your Welder and What It Will no . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 - 3 How the Craftsmen Contact Rod Simplifies Welding 1 - 3 Wkat Happens When You Weld ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 - 3 Read Before Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Learn By Doing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 - 5 Position Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t - t 1 Cest - lron Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.14 Hsrd Surfacing Worn Cutting Edges . . . . . . . . . . 1 - 15 The Twin Carbon Arc Torch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 - 16 Cutting and Other Milcellaneo = JsOperations , . . ! - 17 Inert - Gas Metal * Arc Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 - 19 Read this Manual carefully for additional welding information . SEARS , ROEBUCK AND COMPANY AND SIMPSONS - SEARS LIMITED 1 - 2
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YOUR WELDER and what it will do . . , Your CRAFTSMAN Arc Welderisa sturdilyconstructedandthoroughlytestedmachineengineeredto give many years of efficient trouble - free service . It is listed by Underwriters ' Laboratories , incorporatedw , hich meansthat it passesall requirementsof safety , fire hazardandtemperaturerise limitsasspecifiedintheir Standardfor Transfer - TypeArc - WeldingEquipment . HOWTHE CRAFTSMAN ELECTRODE SIMPLIFIES WELDING Craftsman Contact Electrode is self - starting - - plusautomatic restarting . . . The electrodestartson contact . Craftsman Contact Electrode is self - cleaning . . . Under nnrmai conditionsthe slagremovesitselfastheweld cools . Spatter is almost non - existent . Craftsman Contact Electrode has an exceptionally good appearance . . , With fine ripple , unusually clean , smooth appearancea , nd reducedslaginclusions . CraftsmanContact Electrodedepositsmoremetalfaster . . , Because the powderedironin theflux goesinto the weld . W H AT H A P P m = N S VHEN YOU WELD ? Arc Welding is the process of fusing two or more pieces of metal together to form one piece . It is c = ccompiished by heating adjacent metal surfacesto the melting point with an electric arc , then adding o sufficient amount of molten metal to provide reinforcement and fill any vacant space between the parts being joined , as shown in the accompany - ing illustrations . The arc is created when an etectrlc current , regulated by a welding transformer , flows across an air gap between an electrode and the work being welded . The intense heat generated by the arc is ideally suited for welding , c = sit can be directed to affect only the part of the metal to be welded . Uniform heat from the arc , is acquired by keeping its length the same for a given rod size and current setting . At the instant an arc is " struck " , a portion of the base metal directly beneath it , is melted , resulting in a small pool of molten metal , some of which is forced out by the blast of the arc and deposited along the weld path . The depth of the crater thus formed , is the distance the weld will extend into the base metal and is referred to as the penetration of the weFd . Some of the electrode ( which consists of o metal rod sur - 1 Beth edges of the metal 2 they melt and flow te - rounded by a flux coating ) is melted simultaneously with are heated by the arc , EetherforminE one piece , the base metal and is carried by the arc to the liquid poolm until - - instantly - - This added metal combines with the base metat to for the deposited weld . During this operation a part of the flux coating burns off and forms a gaseous smoke screen that completely en - velops the arc , protecting the molten meta _ from harmful effects of oxygen and nitrogen in the surrounding atmos - phere . The remainder of the flux coating that melts is carried to the molten pool where it mixes with the metal 4 [ fills the crater and coversh 3 more molten metal and to combine with various impurities . It then floats to the flux is added from the the top of the weld wit surfaces to form a coating of slag which covers the de - rod , which - - slag . posited weld metal , protecting it from the atmosphere and retarding its cooling . 5 This process continues the entire length of the weld , _ 3
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READ BEFORE / VELD | NG BAND GASKET _ HEA , D LENS _ AiUSTABLE SPECIAL CET _ R HEb _ ET , / / HELMET SWINGS UP TO LEATHER GLOVES CLEAR THE FACE SPECTACLE TYPE GOGGLES 1 / 4 - INCH STEEL SHOES C - CLAMP SAW GROUND HORSE CABLE W1RE BRUSH o When operating a welder , certain precautions must be taken to prevent minor injuries to yourself and others . Although injuries may not be serious or per - manent , knowing how to use the protective equip - ment to safeguard against them is the first step in learning to weld . The effects of heat and light given off by the arc , whde sparks than ordinary clothing . H _ gh top shoes ( not oxfords ) electric welding , may be compared to that of the sun's rays . should be worn . If a great deal of welding is to be done , foundrymen's shoes are best . Even greater precautions are necessary for electric arc welding . Before starting a weld , caution anyone in the Precautions must also be taken to protect property and immediate vicinity against looking at the arc . In case of equipment against fire . A large fire extinguisher shouTdbe accidental eye iniury , contact a physician immediately within easy reach . The we _ dingarea should have a concrete or cinder floor , kept dry and dear of inflammable rubbish . To protect the face and eyes a heat - resisting , hbreglass Sometimes , it _ s necessary to weld close to a fuel tank . If helmet is used . The special lens , which allows the user practical , remove the part to be welded If not , dram the to view the arc safely , is inserted rata the framed opening tank and completely fill it w _ th water . of the helmet The dear glass , which should be replaced Few tools , in addition to those supplied w _ th the welding from t _ me to t _ me , protects the expensive special lens machine , are needed and most of them can be found in from breakage and weld spatter . The _ elmet is held firmly the average shop Two sawhorses supporting a 1 / 4 - inch _ nplace on the head with an adjustable head band , thereby steel plate makes an excellent welding table A permanent leaving both hands free . A close - fittlng skuff cap should bench , using the same steel plate , can be made of angle be worn w _ th the helmet . As the he ) met _ sused only when iron or p _ pe . A ch _ pping hammer is used to clean slag off actually welding , a t _ ltmg arrangement permits _ t to be a weld and phers will be useful for handling hot metak A swung up clear of the face . When the welding _ sresumed w _ re brush _ sused to dean the work before welding and a s | ight nad of the head tips the helmet down over the Face . remove small pieces of slag after chipping . To protect the eyes further wh _ le cleaning the weld , goggles should be worn by the welder and others working around Small pieces of todd - steel scrap iron , reasonably free of him . Animals are also affected by the rays and should be rust and paint , should be used for prachce welding . Angle kept at a safe distance . iron , bar stock or plate steel are good examples . Do not _ ssescrap cast iron , high carbon or hardened steel as these rneta | s require special electrodes and welding techniques . To safeguard the hands against heat and weld spatter , These should be set aside for future practice after com - gauntlet - type leather gloves s _ ould be worn . A leather pleting elementary practice lessons jacket will give beiCer protection against the shower of
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LEARN BY DOING 90 OF WELO OiRECTIOH Expe _ ience has proven that short periods of practice at first attempting to weld . Insert a small , mgd - steel welding electrode in the electrode holder and connect the welding regular intervals are the best way to teach yourself how cables to produce the heat specified by the CONTROL to weld . As learning to weld is simply a process of trial panel . Connect the ground cable to the work and set the and error , all practice work should be done on scrap metal indicator in the current range recommended for the that can be discarded . Do not attempt to make repairs on diameter of rod used . valuable equipment until you have satisfied yourself that your practice welds are of good appearance and free of slag or gas inclusions . Remember , what you fail to learn Any method of bringing the tip of the rod in contact with while practicing , must be learned through a series of the work , then quickly raising it until there is approximately mistakes and rewelds later on . a 1 / 8 * inch gap between the rod and the work , will start an arc . The easiest way for a beginner to strike an arc is to A comfortable body position is important when learning , scratch the tip of the rod a short distance on the surface of as tensed muscles will result in fatigue and lack of contro ] . the work , as you would a match , then lift it ( qulckly ) the re - Sit on a low stool and grasp the electrode holder in one quired 1 / 8 - inch ( fig . 1 ) . Another method is to strike the work hand with the cable drawn across the lap . Allow enough a hard blow with the tip of the rod and allow it to bounce slack to move the holder freely and yet keep the weight up to form the arc gap . The important thing is to strike and drag of a long length of cable from becoming tiring • the arc quickly and not al ] ow the rod to remain in contact with the work . The ground connection is as much a part of the welding circuit as the cable and electrode holder . A poor ground A common mistake often made by a beginner is to point connection can render the best welding equipment ineffi - the rod toward the work and , after lowering the helmet , cient . When using a table with a steel top , fasten the lug of feel slowly about until the tip of the rod touches the work . the ground cable to it securely with a bolt or C - damp , so that This always results in sticking or " freezing " of the rod any piece of iron placed on the table top will be propedy which produces a direct short circuit . When this occurs the grounded . If a steel table is not used , connect the ground rod can be loosened by bending it from side to side while cable dlrecfly to the work wlth a ground clamp or bolt . pulling on the holder ( fig . 2 ) . If this fails , turn the welder off . The electrode must be released in a matter of seconds Select a fairly large piece of steel plate approximately to avoid unnecessary heating of the welder or damage to 1 / 4 - inch thick and clamp it to the table top to prevent it the flux coating on the rod . from lifting , should the electrode stick or " freeze " when Figure 2 Figure 1 \ \ Should the rod stick or \ To strike an arc , scratch the \ " freeze " bend it from side end of the rnd on the plate to side while puHingupward and then quickly raise ap - on the rod holder . proximately 1 / 8 - inch . _ 5
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I I t _ * _ _ . _ _ / / / / X . , ' / / / J / / I / / / ' / f / / / / _ Figure 5 Figure 6 F _ ger _ 3 " Figure 4 To laya weld beadonlytwo Te widen the bead . work the Watch the Weld puddle to Fill the crater , when starting movementasre used , down - a new rod by striking the rod from si [ le to side slight - keep the slag from flowing wardandinthe directionthe arc at A thee movng to B ly , with a slow . zigzagging in front of it , causing inclu - weldis th be laid . crescent - shaped motion . and back to C position • sions and gas pockets . If difficulty is experienced offer repeated attempts to After laying a number of beads , try " working " the rod maintain an arc check the ground connection for proper from side to side slight y ( fig . 6 ) . This movement should contact with the work . If this does not help , increase the be slow and not wider thcsnthe diameter of the rod being welding current . Also check the rod size , as larger rods used . Experiment with different current settings , rod sizes require higher current settings . and rates of travel . Compare results with welds shown in the diagrams ( fig . 9 ) . Practice striking and maintaining an arc for a few seconds , then snap it out by rapidly pulling the rod away from the Too low a current setting tends to deposit the bead on top work . Repeat this operation until the arc can be started and the gap maintained as uniformly as possible . In a of the plate with very little penetration . The arc sound wi [ [ short time you will find the arc length can be controlled by be an intermittent crackle with irregular sputtering . Too the crackling or " frying " sound which may be recognized high a current setting ( for the size of the rod oeing used ) by gradually shortening the arc until it sputters irregularly will provide sufficient penetration but the bead will be thin as though it were going to " choke out " and stlck - - then ana undercut in places . The arc makes a hissing sound and slowly lengthening the arc by pulling the rod away from the rod becomes red hot before it is half used . the work until it snaps out . Somewhere between these two extremes the steady crackling sound of a proper arc tength If travel is too slow it will pile up a wide , heavy bead with will be heard . good penetration but with overlap of the weld metal on sides without fusion . A large area surrounding the weld is To lay a weld bead , only two movements are used . , o heated to a high temperature which produces distortion , steeay downward feeding of the rod to maintain the correct even on a stmple weld . If the rod is moved too fast these arc length and a slow travel in the direction in which the small bead will result with little more thor melted ba weld is to be lald ( fig , 3 ) . _ / atch the weld puddle and metal . An extremely " long arc causes the rod to melt off in arc length , and move the rod steadily in a straight llne as globules , with litrle or no penetration , and a very irregular the back end of the crater fills up ( fig . 4 ) , The slight c = ngle weld surface . The arc produces a hissing sound . of the rod will keep the flux or slag flowing over the deposited weld metal to form a protective coating . If the A good weld laid with correct current setting , speed and arc rod is moved too slowly the slag will flow in front of the length will produce a surface that is rippled uniformly , with puddle and be trapped in the weld , producing inclusions the same width throughout its length , and well formed and gas pockets . crater . The cross - sectlonal view shows it to have good pene - tratlon and no undercut or overlap . Lay a bead approximately four incheslong . After allowing it to coot slightly , remove the slag coating , which covers the top of the weld , by scraping along each edge of the weld with a cold - chisel to ] owed by wire brushing until it is bright and clean , inspect the surface of the weld carefully before starting another . The surface of a good weld is rippled uniformly , which results from o steady rate of travel and uniforrr arc length . If the scrap plate used is small , it will become very hot after laying a few beads . This will alter welding conditions which could be very confusing to a beginner . Have several scrap pieces handy so each mc _ ybe allowed to cool before laying a second bead . When starting with a new rod , chip slag from the crater Figure 7 Figure 8 and strike ' i - he arc at the forward end as shown at " A ' " in Lay the weld beads about A pad of welfl metal is built figure 5 . Then move the rod to B and back to C , a one inch apart , gemove the up by running a series of about twi _ e _ fi0t _ ai raf _ of travel to give the rod a _ d slag and examine each wed beads in layers at right before starting the nexL angtes to each other . base _ et _ l tim _ t0 : _ f up T0r proper fusion .
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CURRTEONOLTOW T _ AVELTOO FAST Arcis difficult to maintain . Sman bead undercut in Verylittle penetration . High some p _ aces . Rough top bead . and little penetration . CUREEHTTOO HIGH ARC TOO LONG Wide thin head , undercut . Surface ef weld rough . Crater pointed and long , Rod melts off in globules . Rod burns elf very fast . Are makes hissing sound . TRAm / ELTOOgLOW NORMAL CONDtTIONS Metal piles up , making a Uniform ripples on su _ ane wide heavy bead , over - of weld . Arc makes steady tapped at sides in places . crackling sound . Figure 9 Practice laying beads approximately one inch apart until a good we _ d can be produced with all the different rod sizes the welder wilt handle ( fig . 7 ) . After becoming pro _ ficlent in running a bead , build up a pad of weld metal Clean each bead before laying the next and make sure they are fused together ( fig . 8 ) . Run the second layer at right angles to the first and the third at right angles to the second , etc . , . until a pad approximately 1 / 2 - inch thick has been built up . This type of welding _ s used to build up Figure 10 round or flat surfaces or reinforce parts that are rusted thin . To avoid distortion when building up the end of a shaft , run the beads paralle ! to the axis and lay each successive bead on the opposite slde as shown by the numbered steps in figure 10 . Cover the entire shaft with weld metal for the desired length . If the place to be welded is not at the end of the shaft , weld around it and turn the shaft slowly to keep the we | d puddle tn the flat position _ fig . 11 ) . Clean off the slag after each bead , then machine the shaft to proper size . 17
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FLAT WELDING SLIGHT SHEET GAP METAL nff ' lffiff . g _ f p , . JLWETIELD L _ _ _ _ I \ RACK - UP STRIP Frgure 4 vrt19 LAPWELD TACK Figure 3 Figurel i WELOS i ] lr Fcgure 5 Fiat welding includes all types of joints in which the weld is horizontal , and the electrode is fed down as m the practice welds of previous pages . The five types of joints in figure 1 can be welded in the flat position . Butt welds on light material should be practiced first on scrap stock . Use 16 - gauge mild steel sheet metal ( approxi - mately 1 / 16 - inch thick ) and 5 / 64 - inch rods wqth the welder set at approximately 30 to 50 amperes . Butt edges of metal Figure 7 together and tack - weld approximate ] y every three inches ( fig . 2 ) . ( Tack welds are small beads 1 / 4 to 3 / 8 - inches in length . ) Place bars of scrap iron under ends of the work to provide an air space above the table . Simply move the rod Figure 8 in a straight line directly above the edges to be ( greed If the weld burns through in places , reduce the welding cur - t - . t - - GAP rent or increase the rate of travel . Some difficulty may be FIRSTPASS experier _ ced in starting the arc at these low current settings . E V - WELD However , once the arc Js started , there will be sufficient T _ IRDPASS _ SECONDPA _ S Figure 9 heat to make a sound weld . After laying a bead , turn the work over and inspect the underside which should also have a small uniform bead . To prevent burning through where REIHFORC _ ING ( WEAVE ) the edges are not butted t _ ghtly together , move the rod back E - BEVELW £ LO and forth with short quick strokes in the dlrechon of the _ PAS $ BlrffWELD weld to brTdge the gap and give the metal in the crater a Figure 10 chance to solidify ( fig . 3 ) . Butt welds on sheet metal hghter than 18 gauge should not be attempted by the beginner without the use of a over and weld a slm _ iar bead on the other side ( fig 71 A back - up strip ( fig 4 ) This consists of a bar of copper hEgher welding current can be used on this s _ de as there ws clamped tightly against the underside of the seam to absorb no danger of burning through and fusion with the first the heat of the arc and prevent the weld from burmng bead will be assured through . To assure complete penetrahon with butt welds on 8 - gauge metal or heavier , a 1 / 16 to 3 / 32 - inch gap Although butt welds can be made on steel plates up to should be altowed between them ( fig 5 ) Insert a wedge or 3 / 8 - inch thick , with a 295 - ampere machine using 1 / 4 - inch screwdriver between the plates when tack - welding to mare - rod , the same results can be obtained with the 180 and tam the gap , then turn the piece over , so the tack welds are 230 - ampere machines if edges of plates are beveled ( fig B ) on the underside Metal of almost any thickness can be welded m th _ smanner by depositing a number of beads , one on top of the other Use enough current to melt edges of ploFes to o depth of until the groove _ s completely filled . If the plate can be at least one - half their thickness Clean off the slag and welded from both sides , always use a double bevet ( fig . 9 ) respect it for smoothness , penetration and height of rem - ] f only one plate _ s beveled , the angle should be at 45 de - forcernent A good weld should have a reinforcement shghtly grees fflg . 10 ) . more than flush with the surface ( f _ g 6 ) - Turn the plate 1 - 8
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Run the first pass on beveled plates with a 5 / 32 - inch rod and Jse as high a current as you can handle to obtain a small bead on the underside . If this is not done , insufficient UNDERCUT GAS POCKET penetration will result , as shown in figure 11 . Be sure to clean each pass before laying on the next . All beads are laid by mowng the rod in a straight line with no weaving ENT or side - to - slde movement . On the last or reinforcing pass , a weaving motion must be used to obtain a wide weld that PENETRATION will completely cover oreceding beads . For the beginner , Figure 11 the side - to - side movement . with a slight hesitation at each end ) will produce a smooth too without undercut or overlap . Select several practice welds of different thicknesses and cut them into 1 - 1 / 2 - 1nch strips . Clamp each strip in a vise Figure 12 and bend it at the weld ( fig . 12 ) . If it breaks through the weld , study it to find the cause of failure . Corner welds are made on light sheet metal by running a single bead along the top , after tack - welding at three - inch intervals to prevent warping ( fig . 13 ) . If numerous gaps are present , a back - up strip may be used . On heavier Figure 13 metal two passes may be necessary and , if the design permits , a smaller pass can be laid on the underside . Beveling may be used to advantage on the thicker metals . FILLET WELDS II BREAKING THE WELD Figure 4 Figure 6 WELD this type should always be at least four times their size in Fillet welds are used to join two pieces of metal with sidesor length ; that is , a 1 / 4 - inch fillet weld should never be less edges at right angles to each other . The size of such a than one inch long . The direction in which the load is applied weld is based on the leg length of the largest isoscelesright to a weld greatly affects its strength , which can be dearly triangle that can be inscribed within the cross sectional area , as shown by the dotted - llne triangle ( fig . 1 ) . The demonstrated by breaking the weJd ( fig . 4 ) . A ioint so loaded should always be welded on both sides with fillets size of a fillet weld may also be measured with a square and ruler , subtracting 1 / 32 - inch from all dimensions under equat to the plate thickness ( fig . 5 ) . If this cannot be done , 3 / 16 - inch and 1 / 16 - inch from all over 1 / 4 - inch ( fig . 2 ) . bevel the plate to assure complete penetration and position the work at a 45 * degree angle if possible . For example , a 1 / 4 - inch fillet weld should measure 5 / 16 - inch . This will offset any inaccuracy due to the slight radius For practice , tack - weld three pleces of scrap iron together at the toe of the weld and allow for concavity of the bead . to form a cross ( fig . 6 ) . Use a 5 / 32 - inch rod with high curren _ and hold it as indicated in the front and side views . Move When csfillet weld ] s stressed to its maximum capacity , the rod at a steady even pace along the seam without any failure will usually occur through the throat section ( fig . 3 ) . slde - to - side movement and deposit one inch of weld for Therefore , the strength is determined by the throat dimen - each inch of rod melted . The surface contour of a good we _ d sion multiplied by the length of the weld . Finished welds of lr ?
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Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 11 Figure tO _ UTTING INTERMITTENT WELOS Figure 12 _ _ EXCESSWELD _ Figure 13 STAGGEREO iNTER + WELDS Figure + 16 Figure 17 LAPWELDS WELD _ ' \ OBHOTHSIRES LAPWELDS ATENDOF JOINT Figure 14 Figure 15 will come with experience . If the arc is advanced too fast , should be nearly flat with a slight radius at the sides ore toes . Avoid excessive concave or convex surfaces of th or held too close to the vertical plate , undercutting may result ( fig . 12 ) . Too slow travel will cause overlapping and fillet ( fig . 7 ) . Undercuts and cold - laps are caused by not an extremely close arc or low current will produce a bead holding the rod in the center of the seam ( fig . 8 ) . If the with a convex surface ( fig . 13 ) . To check the penetration and desired fillet weld cannot be made with a single pass , soundnessof the bead , break some of the welds for inspec - several passesare usedto build it up to required size ( fig . 9 ) . tion , as shown in figure 4 + Slag must be cleaned from each pass before depositing the next . Fillet welds over 1 / 2 - inch in size are rarely used When making a lap weld , care should be taken not to mett because ioints requiring more strength can be made more too much of the upper corner on the top plate ( fig . 14 ) . economically by beveling and groove + welding , followed Some melting will take place , but proper advance of the by a small concave fillet weld to provide a radius in the rod will cause the weld metal to build up and blend into the corner , top surface . On sheet metal , hold the 3 / 32 - inch rod almosl perpendicular and move the arc rapidly . Welds of this Horizontal fillet welding is used when the side or edge of type should be wider than they are high , somewhat like a flat beacJ ( fig . 15 ) . A sfight discoloration on the underside one member of the joint is inthe vertical positionparticularly of the lower sheet indicates good penetration . On heavy for small single - pass welds where the work cannot be tilted . metal , a 3 / 8 + inch fillet weld can be laid in one pass with a For practice , tack + weld two pieces of scrap together to 1 / 4 - inch rod using a 295 - ampere machine . However , with form a tee - jolnt ( fig . 10 ) . Use a 5 / 32 - inch rod held at smaller machines , the same weld or larger can be made by angles indicated , and direct the arc into the corner ot the building up with a number of passes ( fig . 16 ) . When joint . The arc length should be somewhat shorter than for flat fillet welding . To assure penetration at the root , use the welding long narrow pieces , stagger the welds in short intermittent beads , first on one side then on the other side , highest welding current that ca _ be handled ( fig . 11 ) . to minimize distortion ( fig . 17 ) . Good penetration is of prime importance and appearance t - ) O
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POSUTION WELDING weld , run a few practice beads to get the " feel " of the arc . Tack - weld a piece of scrap iron to an old practice plate so it is positioned vertically ( fig . 3 ) . Use 1 / 8 - inch rods for the first welds and a current of about 75 to 115 amperes . Experiment with various amperage settings until you are using the highest current you can handle . Hold the rod at right angles to the plate laterally , with the tip pointed up at the angle shown in figure 3 . Start the weld at the top of the plate and move the rod in a straight line downward . The correct rate of travel can be determined by gradually reducing the speed until molten metal in the puddle can no longer be kept in place . Then , increase the speed slightly while watching the puddle , arc length and angle of the rod . A short arc provides better control of the molten metal . WELD Follow the same procedure with 3 / 32 and 5 / 32 - inch rods . It will be noted that the larger the rod the more difficult it is to control the puddle . For this reason smaller diameter rods are always used for position welding . In order to derive the greatest benefits from your welder , you should practice until you can make a welded joint Lap or tee - joints are made by simply directing the arc into in almost any conceivable position . The ability to do this the corner of the joint as in flat welding and moving the is especially useful when making repairs on machinery as rod down the seam at a steady pace . Butt welds may require the amount of welding in most cases is small and does not more practice , as there is a tendency to burn through on warrant disassembling the parts to weld them in the flat light gauge material . If this occurs , continue until the seam position . Welds of this type have been classified into three is completed and patch the hole by chipping the slag and groups according to their location and are referred to as wire brushing until clean . Then , with slightly lower current , vertical , horizontal and overhead welds ( fig . 1 ) . Of the strike an arc on the weld directly above the hole and quickly three positions , vertical welding will be used the most and bring the rod down to the lower rim of the hole to tdeposito should be practiced first . Skill gained in this type of weld a small amount of metal . Raise the rod for an instant will make horizontal and overhead welding easier . let the metal solidify and repeat until the hole is welded . Hold a long arc when raising , so there will be no metal VERTICAL WELDING deposited except when the rod is lowered . Any hesitation The two methods of welding in the vertical position are in the rate of travel will cause a " burn through . " If this commonly known as " vertlcal - down " and " ' vertical - up " happens repeatedly , lower the welding current . welding ( fig . 2 ) . In the former the bead is started at the top and welded in a straight line downward . In the latter Leave a slight gap between pieces for butt welds on material the bead is started at the bottom and welded up , usually over 3 / 32 - inch thick . Inspect the back side after welding with a weaving motion . for small bead along the seam , indicating complete pene - tration ( fig . 4 ) . Butt joints on material around 3 / 16 - inch The chief difficulty encountered with any position weld is thick should be welded on both sides . keeping the molten metal in the puddle from falling out , To prevent this the arc mustbe held as short as possible and Vertical - down welds may be made on heavier material by the weld puddle kept fairly small so it will solidify rapidly . laying in a number of passes ( fig . 5 ) , however , this practice Vertical - down welding isthe easiest to perform and is used is not recommended as it takes longer than a heavier single - pass weld made by the vertical - up method . on material up to l / B - inch thick . Before attempting a vertical DOWNWELD VERTICAL - DOWN9 _ / 3RO PASS IRSD £ _ - 2gB PSi ; A SMA , LLS _ OP4 g _ K SiDE | IIOBAWN _ COIIPLETP _ £ WET T0tg Figure 4 _ ure 3 Figure 5 iii
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VERTICAI . . UP 90 ° WELDING Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 6 F ; gure TO r _ Use 1 / 8 and 5 / 32 - inch rods for all verticabup welds and weave ( fig . 9 ) . This will produce a " shelf " upon which additional metal is deposited intermLttentlyas the welding sta _ " by running practice beads from bottom to top of a 3 / 16 or 1i4 - 1nch plate , tack - welded in a vertical position progresses • There should be a slight pause in the weaving mot _ an at the toes of the weld to avoid making a bead that Hold the rod as shown in figure 6 , noting that the angle is too convex . Materials 1 / 4 - inch and thicker must be bev - of the rod is not as steep as for vertlcal - down welding , but eled on one or both sides , depending upon the joint . tdted just slightly ( approximately five degrees ) so the tip of the electrode points upward . Strike and hold a short arc Practice making a wide bead using a side - to . side weaving until a small amount of metal _ s deposited , then quickly motion with a very shght whipping action at each end to raise the rod upward w _ th a wrist movement to increase the give the metal at each end a chance to solidify and avoid length of the arc at the top of the stroke ( fig . 7 ) . As soon undercutting along the sidesof the weld ( fig . 10 ) . This type os the metal deposited in the crater hes solidified , bring the of bead is used on welds that require more than one pass rod down and deposit more metal . Keep repeating this and is colTed the finish bead or " wash " pass . Hold a short whipping motion , while gradually moving the rod upward arc , making the bead approximately 3 / 4 - inch wide and and toward the plate as the electrode burns off . The length fairly hght , Multiple verticoLwelds may be made as shown of the stroke will depend upon the amount of metal de _ in the series of diagrams , figure 11 . posited and the welding current used . Keep the rod in constant motion once it has left the crater . The purpose of a long arc is to prevent any metal from being deposited except when the rod is held at the crater . If globules of molten metal drop from the tip of the rod when the arc is lengthened , either the current is too high or the rod has remained away from the crater too lang . Care should be taken not to break the arc Qt the top of the stroke . Do not deposit too much metal at one time as this will cause the r pASS weld to sag and result in a high narrow bead undercut along the sides • Better penetration can be had by the vertical - up method • This can be demonstrated by joining ÷ two pieces of 3 / 16 - inch metal with a butt weld , using the whrpping motion . Leave a gap between the plates and use a 5 / 32 - inch rod with a fairly high current , determined by experimenting . The whipping motion wifl melt the corners of the plate and form a pocket in wh ] ch to deposit the weld TOP _ I $ ! metal ( fig . 8 ) . Burn the rod in deep so the crater extends through to the back side . After completing the weld , inspect the back side for the smalt bead , whLch indicates 100 - percent pene - tration Buff welds on heawer materials should be welded on both sides . On materials up to 1 / 4 - 1nch thick , use the whipping motion on small single - passfillet welds for lap and tee - joints . Larger single - pass fillet welds can be made by the whipping motion Frgure I 1 with a slight slde - to - slde weave added and combined with the up and down movement to make a triangular shaped
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HOLD A LOHSARC UP SIROKE Figure 14 ) + Figure 12 i il OVER - LAPPED BACK - UP STRIP Figure 13 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 HORIZONTAL WELD | NG one side . If the seam has numerous gaps , use a back - up Horizontal welding refers to one type of butt weld between two plates in a vertical plane . For practice , set up a plate strip , allowing a slight gap between edges of 1 / 8 - inch as for vertical welding and run straight beads across from thick metal and weld from both sides ( fig . 15 ) . All metal 3 / 16 - 1nch thick and over should be beveled and welded left to right ( fig . 12 ) . Use tFe same current settings as for vertical - down welding and hold the rod as indicated with with a number of passes ( fig . t6 ) . Thoroughly clean each a short arc . Move the rod in a straight llne and deposit bead before laying the next and use higher current than a light bead . The rate of travel will depend upon the current for single - pass welding . used . Too slow a travel will cause the bead to sag ( fig . 13 ) . The appearance of a multiple - pass horizontal weld can be Practice with 3 / 32 , 1 / 8 and 5 / 32 - inch rods until a well improved by vertical down beads lald closely together . formed bead can be made with each size rod ( fig . 14 ) . Use a swift circular motion to the right ; slowly downward while welding ( fig . 17 ) . Sheet metaJ up to 1 / 16 - inch thick can be butt welded from OVERHEAD WELDING Although overhead welding is generally considered diffi - eu ] t , do not become discouraged , as it is being done every day by people who have taught themselves . Once the art of maintaining a short arc has been mastered , the rest will be easy . Since there will be a shower of sparks , wear a leather jacket and keep the practice plate slightly higher than the top of your head when standing . To keep sparks out of your gJove , grasp the electrode ho ] der as indicated in figure 18 and ho ] d the rod in a nearly vertical position with a slight tilt to the right + Drape the cable over your shoulder so its weight will not interfere with the use of the electrode . Use 1 / 8 - inch rods and a current setting the same as for vertical welding , and move the rod in a straight line without any weaving or whipping motions . A reasonably fast rate of travel must be used to prevent the bead from sagging and F ; gure 18 undercutting along the edges . Vary the rate of travel and notice its effect on the size and appearance of the weld . When you feel you can run a satisfactory bead , try the slde - to - side weaving motion and deposit a thin weld ap - Figure 19 proximately 3 / 4 - inch wide . Themovement must be somewhat faster than for other positions to keep the bead from sagging . ( This method of weaving is used on ] y for the last pass on heavy welds where improved appearance is Fillet welds for lap or tee - joints are most common in the necessary . ) overhead position . Tack + weld two pieces of scrap iron The whipping motion is used where a gap exists between together to form a tee + iolnt , and clamp in the overhead the plates as it provides better penetration with higher position so one plate is held vertically ( fig . 19 ) . HoLd the welding current . For practice work , set up two plates ap - rod at angles indicated and deposit a light bead from left proximately 1 / 8 - inch thick , allowing a gap between them . to right without weaving or whipping movements . A slightly Burn in deep for good penetration with 1 / 8 and 5 / 32 - 1nch higher current than used for overhead butt we _ ds will be rods , varying the plate size and gap distances . necessary to get good penetration at the root of the weld . _ - _ 3
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DISTORTION TRENDS WHEN COOLING BUTTW £ L _ Figure 23 _ T IST mLBH _ T _ yRt9 _ . ET _ Figure 20 Figure 24 Figure 21 surrounding metal is free to move ( not clamped or tacked ) To simulate actual conditions tack - weld a piece with an It cannot resist these forces and bends ( fig 22 ) irregular edge to another piece leaving numerous gaps along the iolnt . Use the _ vhlpp [ ng motion and deposit a The weld also contracts in width , as well as _ n length , fairly heavy bead , slowing down the rate of travel where tending to pull the plates together , resulting in locked - up the gaps are widest to budd up a weld of umform size stresses ( fig . 23 ) . This is not too serious when weldlng mild throughout Its length . If the gaps are rather wide , fil _ them steel up to 1 / 2 - inch thick , as the ductJhtyand elongation of first , clean off the slag and lay _ n a fillet weld the entire the metal will permit it to deform shghtly to compensate length of the joint ( fig 20 ) for these forces , and prevent cracking On sheet metal and light structural members , long continuous welds may cause When you can lay slngle . pass butts and hllet welds you will conslderabb bending and result in a badly distorted weld - be able to make an overhead weld of any size , as it is ment . Fortunately mostof this can be avoided by studying simply a matter of fusing a number of straight beads to - the effects of expansion and contrachon , as related to the gether , one on top the other ( fig . 21 ) . job before welding and working out a procedure to follow Weld appearance can be improved by grinding with a For example : first assemble the job with tack welds , and properly guarded abrasive wheel mounted on the end of _ nstall temporary braces tack - welded to support parts that a flexible shaft . might bend . The braces can be removed after the lob is completed . Lay the beads GO the stresseswill counteract or nbutralize one another , by running a short pass first on EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION one side then on the other , etc . Often the neutralizing weld is at the other end of the job . Do not concentrate too many Metals expand when heatedi contract when cooled In arc welding , the deposited metal and edges being joined are welds m one place but space them to distribute the heat and stresses throughout the enhre structure Use intermittent molten and the metal surrounding the weld is heated suf - welds whenever pass . hie , ff continuous welds are necessary fiaently to cause expansion . When the deposited metal to make a water - tlght compartment , use the back - step so | id _ fies , it becomes a part of the plates ; but , being unre - method as shown in figure 24 , fusing each bead together stricted in its expansion in the molten state , it tends to at the end . contract more than the heated surrounding metal If the CAST iRON WELDING weld or the casting Because of tow tensde strength and Previous experience in handhng the arc , plus good ludg - lack of ductility it cannot bend , stretch or d _ stort itseJfta rnent regarding expansion and contraction , wdl enable conform to the contraction of the weld metal . In same cases you to weld grc _ y cast Iron successfully m a short t _ me . _ t may be necessary to pre - heat the entire casting before Two types of electrodes are used , namely : non - mach _ nabEe weJd _ ng . However , as most cast _ ran welding lobs can be for use in cases where the weld does not have ta be clone without pre - heatmg , this method will be considered machined , and machinable which deposits a file - soft weld first that can be drilled or machined to close tolerances Non - rnachJnabJe rods are used for most repair iobs such as The part must be free of rust , grease , paint or dirt , cleaned cracked motor blocks , water jackets , pump and gear hous - by w _ re brushing , grinding or washing with solvent The ings , etc . I { the weld must be made across a machined crack should be beveled for penetration . If the parts are surface that need not be refinished to a close tolerance , broken apart completely , they may be ground on an abrasive the face of the weld may be ground flush wtth an abrasive wheel to a single or double bevel , depending upon the wheel . thickness of parts and whether or not the ioint can be we _ ded from bath sides . Do not bevel to a sharp edge along As cast iron is ve , " y brittle , care must be taken to control the entire crack . Instead , allow approximately 1 / 16 - , nch expansion and contraction , and thus avoid cracking of the t - 14
Page: 23

of the fractured surface to llne up the two pieces . Tack - weld brush each bead before depositing the next . Then continue or clamp parts in position . ! f the crack has not separated to fill the groove with short weld beads as before , worklng the casting , a vee - g _ oove can be chipped out with a dla - rapidly when depositing and peening the bead . Allow plenty mond - point chisel . Chlp an inch or so beyond the visible of time for cooling . Examine the casting for cracks that may develop during cooling periods . If any of the beads crack , ends of the crack as it may extend under the surface . On cracked water jackets , where only a seal is required , the chip them out and re - weld . If cracking persists , preheat depth of the groove need on ! y be one - half the thickness the entire casting slowly to a dull red heat with an oxyacety - lene torch or blow - torch . When the preheated method is of the casting . used , the welding can be continuous . After completing the Keep the casting as cool as possible and do not expect to weld , cover the casting with warm dry sand or slaked llme complete a weld in cast iron as rapidly as in the same length so it will cool slowly . in mild steel . Use a smaller rod and a slightly higher current Malleable iron is ordinary gray cast iron that has been heat than for the same thickness of steel . Lay a short bead , about treated to give it a tough ductile outer skin . The method of an inch long , at one end of the crack and peen it immediately welding is the same as for cast iron . with a cross - peen hammer or blunt chisel to spread the weld metal and relieve locked - up stresses . Do not strike the edges of the casting . Place the second bead at the opposite FIRST BEAD THIRD HEAD SECOND H £ AD end of the crack and the next in the center , etc ( fig . 1 _ . Allow enough time between welding to permit your bare hand to be held on it . Never use water or a blast of air to cool the casting . Although cracks may not show up immediately , the locked - up stresses due to uneven cooling will cause the casting to fail after it is back in service . Wire i _ ' _ . 4 HARD FACmNG WORN CUTTING EDGES GR _ D OFF WEJ _ VEBEAHS INOICATES Figure 2 F ; gure 3 HARO FACING HARDFACIfH HARDFACING HARD FACE ON UNOERSID [ Ig SIDES _ PS SOFTBASE METAL MILO - STE £ L PA _ / CH W _ ARSAWAY EASTEr WELDS SPIKE THAN HARD HAS ] fiG Figure 5 HARROW TOOTH SWREP Figure must be deposited along the edge to build it up ( fig . 3 ) . Make beads heaviest where the wear will be greatest , but Excavating equipment , earth - cuffing farm machinery or avoid excessive build - up as the metal cannot be filed or others such as plow shares , lister shares , cultivator shovels , machined . If shaping is required , heat the weld metal and sweeps , subsoilers , spike harrow teeth , tractor treads , ex - forge it . Smoothing and sharpening can be accomplished cavating buckets , or any surface subject to abrasive action by grinding . will last much longer and require less sharpening when their cutting edges are hard faced with hard surfacing For plow and lister shares , cuffivator shovels and similar electrodes . The arc welding process consists of depositing cutting points , deposit the weld metal on one side only a layer of abrasion resisting weld metal on the worn cutting which will result in a self - sharpening edge ( fig . 4 ) . The edges as indicated in red on the parts shown in figure 1 . softer base metal on the other side will wear away first and leave a knifedike edge of hard facing material . Parts that Prepare the part for welding by cleaning the surface to be must wear uniformly on both sides should be hard faced welded by grinding it approximately 1 - 1 / 2 inches back on both sides . The condition of the worn part must also be from the edge ( fig . 2 ) . Position the part so weld metal can taken into consideration . ] f the part requires a number of be deposited in the flat position . If the material is 1 / 4 - inch thick or Jess , use a 1 / 8 - 1nch rod and as low a current as passesto bring it up to the desired thickness , use mild - stee _ welding rods first ; then cover with deposited metal from possible that will still permit the metal to flow out smooth hard surfacing rods . If the edge is entirely worn away , a and falrly thin ( 1 / 16 to 1 / 8 - inch thick ) . Weave the rod from slde - to - side in a crescent - shaped movement and de - steel patch ( cut to fit ) may be welded in place with mild - steel electrodes , then hard faced ( fig . 5 ) . To prevent distortion posit a bead about 3 / 4 to 1 - 1nch wide . Several passes when hard facing small parts , peen the deposited weid ( laid slde - by - side ) may be necessary where the worn sur - metal before it cools . faces are quite wide . In some cases a small straight bead
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THE TWIN - CARE ] ON ARC TORCH To prepare the torch for use , connect its two cables to the ground and electrode cables of the welding machine . Grounding of the work _ snot necessary as the operation of the arc flame is enhrely independent With the thumb knob on the handle in the " off " pos _ tlon , insert two 3 / 8 - inch car - bon electrodes in the holders and clamp in place at approxi - mately one - half their length ( fig . 2 ) Do not clamp them on or near the ends opposite from the arc as this will cause overheahng of the carbons . When tightening the clamping screws , be careful not to apply too much pressure on the carbons , as they are very bnttle and break easily . Use only enough pressure to hold them firmly m place , if the hps of the carbons do not hne up with each other , an adjustment Figure I may be made by turning the Iorlgestof the electrode holders slightly , too much turning will loosen it , and make it neces - sary to disassemble the torch to agaln tighten it properly . Do not make any turning adlustments wdh the shding holder Work ordinarily done with a gas welding torch _ spossibleer . as this would spo _ l the contact tensRonin the sw _ tch with the twin - carbon arc torch connected to an A . C . weld The carbon - arc flame is similar to the flame of a gas weld - To strike the arc , turn on the welding machine and set _ t for ing torch in that it provides heat by radlahon , rather than approximately 70 amperes Lower the welding helmet and by direct arc between work and electrode This flame heat hold the torch up to silhouette it against the hght of a win - greatly widens the scope of work possible with the arc dow . Slowly move the thumb knob forward untd contact welder for brazing , soldering , welding of non - ferrous metals Lsmade between the hps of the carbons . Th _ swLH start the and localized heating for bending , forging and hardening . arc Then Jmmed _ ate [ y move the knob back to mcrease the gap between the carbons . The actual d _ stance can be deter - The arc torch ( fig . t ) consists of an insulated handle with mme _ with a httle prachce When the carbons are too close two projecting carbon electrode holders , one of which is ad - the arc flame will have a sharp crackhng noise As the justable to permff strikingand breaking an arc at the carbon distance between the carbons is increased , the crackhng tips . A thumb knob on the handle performs the adjustment w _ rfchange to a soft purring sound which md _ cates the best and operates csshut - off swltch built into the handle . There arc flame . There are two heat zones and the small tuner are no valves or gauges that require fine adjustment as zone _ sby far the hottest , having an eshmated temperature with an oxyacetylene torch The same protective equipment of 9000 degrees Fahrenheit ( fig 3 ) used for ordinary arc weldmg is used when operating the carbon - arc torch . The shape of the flame greatly influences the way m which it must be used For example , on beveled work the torch A wide selection of flame heats may be hod by varying should be held parallel to the groove so the flame wdl reach the current and size of the carbon electrodes . Ahhough the the bottom ( fig . 4 ) . If held at right angles to the groove , the actual temperature of the arc remains the same for any flame straddles the groove and the heat w _ ll not reach the current setting , the volume of transferable heat increases bottom ( f _ g 5 ) Filler rods , as for gas welding , must be used with an increase in amperage . However , amperages in on Iomts of tb _ s type excessof those given below will only cause short carbon life . 1 / 4 - in . carbons . . . . . . . 30 to 40 amperes The soft , bushy flc _ me _ s pressureless and has no tendency 5 / 16 - _ n . carbons . . . . 40 to 65 amperes to blow the mohen metal This _ sa d _ shnct advantc _ ge when 3 / 8 - 1n . carbons . . . . . . . 65 to 90 amperes welding thin sheet metal Jo _ r _ tsan hght mater _ al should be i CORRECT FLAME POSITION INcoi _ RECT FLAME POSITION i ELE Tn0 _ E , k _ e \ \ _ C F _ gure 2 F ; gure 3 Frgure 4 F _ gure 5 i ! 16
Page: 25

bent and edges fused together by melting down the excess metal to form a bead ( fig . 6 ) . No filler rods are required . The carbon - arc torch is ideally suited for brazing and soldering sinai ] tubing . Cast and malleable iron can be brazed with excellent results . A bronze filler rod and common brazing flux are used . Rust , paint or grease must be cleaned from the area to be brazed . If it is a buff joint , such as a crack in a casting , grind or chip out a beveled groove as for arc welding . Apply the heat from the arc flame gradually by passing it over the metal surrounding the joint . When the casting has become warm , concentrate the arc flame at the joint . The important thing to remember when brazing cast iron is never to heat the edges ef the joint to the melting point . The temperature of the work should not exceed the melting point of the filler rod . The carbons are held as close to the work as possible without causing the metal to bubble . Hold the filler rod in the left hand and heat the end of it slightly aluminum alloy , use aluminum flux . The filler rod should by passing it through the arc flame . Then dip the heated be of the same analysis as the work . If regular welding end in brazing flux . Raise the torch slightly and deposit rod is not available , strips of the parent metal may be used . some of the flux at the part of the joint being heated . When A back - up strip should be used when welding thin material . the surface of the heated metal takes on a shiny or wet appearance , the filler rod can be applied . Small diameter carbons and low amperage setting are used for soldering . The torch is held so the work is just within Do not put the rod directly in the flame , but hold it on the the visible edge of the flame . Apply the soldering flux and work and let the heat of the edge of the flame and the work play the flame over the work until it is iust hot enough to melt the rod . Deposit only enough metal to fin the part of " melt the solder . If the joint is to be sweat - soldered , tin the the joint that has been coated with flux . As the metal is surfaces to be joined , then press them together and reheat , being deposited , move the torch along the ioint slowly , adding more solder at the edges of the joint . applying flux to the rod and joint as required . One of the most practical uses of the arc torch is heating Copper and copper - base alloys such as bronze and brass metal for bending , forging , etc . Set the torch for a wide , may also be brazed , but as their melting temperatures are enveloping - type flame and apply the heat to the bottom of so close to the meItlng point of the filler rod , the process the work ( fig . 7 ) . Since a red heat is not visible through the in many cases becomes one of welding rather than brazing . dark welding glass , the helmet must be raised periodically A bronze fil ] er rod and common brazing flux are used . so the work can be inspected to avoid overheating . To pro - tect the eyes from the rays of the arc , hold the torch to Most non - ferrous metals can be welded by manipulating one side and above your head . The carbon - arc torch is the torch and filler rod in the same manner as for brazing , not recommended for welding mild - steel . However , it may with the exception that the edges of the joint are heated to be used for brazing mild - steel if the meta ] is too thin for the melting point before depositing the filler metal , tf the regular metallic - arc welding . work is a copper alloy , use common brazing flux . If it is an CUTTING and other miscellaneous operations CUTTING WITH THE ELECTRIC ARC Arc cutting is simply the continuation of a " burn through " such as you probabty experienced when practicing with light sheet - metal welding . When this action is accelerated by using extremely high currents , it becomes an efficient method of cutting metals . Although the edges of the cut START surfaces are not as smooth as when cut with a saw or , a , , _ . MOLTEHMETAL CUT HERE STEEL oxyacetylene torch , there are many cases where such pre - , _ CONTAINER cision is not required . Ordinary mild - steel welding rods may be used . The current will vary with the type and thick - Figure 1 ness of the material . In general , high currents increase the speed of cutting but also increase the rod burn - off rate and width of the cut .
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BOLT AND RIVET CUTTING MOVI [ ROe Lip AND - _ , . _ Removing rusty bolts or rivets is an easy job with an electric arc welder . The arc is struckon the head or nut of the bolt and worked around in a slight circular movement until the head is completely melted off ( fig . 4 ) . A punch is then used to drive out the remaining part . The boff or rivet can be removed by heating the head almost to the melting point , then quickly shearing it off with a cold chisel Care mustbe taken not to cause the bolt to become welded to the metal _ . START ECUTRE H HOLE PIERCING Another useful appllcahon of the welding arc is piercing F _ gure 2 holes in metal . Coated metallic electrodes are best for this purpose because of their small size and insulation afforded by the coating . The process is extremely fast and To make a trial cut , place a bar of steel approximately a surprisinglycleon circular hole can be made . Far practice , 1 / 4 - 1nch thick on the table so that ene end projects over place a piece of scrap iron I / 4 - inch thick ( or less ) on the the edge . Use a 3 / 32 - inch rod and a current setting of table and allow it to project over the edge as for arc around 140 amperes . Hold the rod as shown in figure 1 and cutting . Use a 3 / 32 - inch rod and the same current as for strike an arc on the top corner at the edge of the bar where cutting . At the place where the hole is to be pierced , strike the cut is to be made . Feed the rod into the molten puddle an arc and hold it until a molten puddle is formed . Then and keep the crater burning through as the rod is moved push the electrode down against the molten puddle and across the bar . To catch the molten metal , place a metal force it through the plate . It ispossible to hold the e4ectrode container an the floor directly under the cut . against the melted plate because the metal core melts off When cutting metal heavier than 1 / 4 - inch , the arc is started faster than the coating The coating ( not the rod ) touches at the bottom corner and worked up and down vertically the molten metal ( fig . 5 ) . The gap malntamed by the pro - as shown in figure 2 , advancing the bottom of the cut truding coahng prevents the metal core of the electrode slightly ahead of the top of the cut to permit molten metal from sticking or freezing to the plate . to run out more easily . If a smooth edge is desired , the If a larger diameter hole is desired , first pierce a hole as pieces can be ground on an abrasive wheel . Electrodes described . Then , holding a fairly long arc , melt the edges designed especially for cutting may cllsobe used . of the hole away by moving the rod around it ( fig . 6 ) . Holes of almost any diameter can be made . To pierce a hole through material thicker than 1 / 4 - inch , work from the REMOVING SEAMS underside . In addition to cutting , the electric welding arc can be used for beveling the edges of material to be welded , gouging out cracked welds for rewelding or removing tack - welds . HEATING The surface of the metal being worked upon should be ap - proximately in the vertical position , or tipped slightly toward The carbon arc prowdes a convenient method for localized the arc ( fig . 3 ) . Start at the bottom of the seam to be gouged heating of all metals . Simply strike an arc on the part to be out and work upward . The rate of speed will depend upon heated and " play " it across the surface unfit the required the depth of the groove and the amount of metal removed . temperat _ ureis reached MOL1TN GOUGINe Figure 3 Figure 4 FJgure 5 Figure 6 1 - 1E
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INERT - GAS METAL - ARC WELDING ( Nonconsumabme ) GROUNDWEODRNPIECE ANYCRAFTSMWAENLDER ALLCABLES ORWORTNABLE MAYBEUSEOWITHHFNT SHOULDBE TOELECTRODE / ATTACHME NEPTSHORT ASPOSSIBLE ( Donot ex - ceed12 - U2 ( feetin length ) H E ATE NWELDERD GROONDCABLEJ GROU WELDER CABINET _ - I CABLE o o MOST BE GROUNDED 230 VOLT _ HOCYCLE SINGLPEHASE / ' ; \ WELDINGCABLETO WELDER HIGHFREQUENCY AC OR DC WELOER ATTACHMENT Figure 2 F _ ure I All off , grease , paint , rust , dirt or other contaminants must HmGH FREQUENCY ATTACHMENT be removed either by mechamcal means or by the use of vapor or hquid cleaners . Files , chisels and stainless wire The Craftsman , High - Frequency Attachment may be used brushesmay be used Grinding Jsnot recommended . Liquid with any Craftsman welder or other single - phase , trans - cleaners such as naphtha , mineral spirits , alcohol , acetone farmer - type welder of high quality construction having an AC , or AC / DC power output Tungsten inert gas ( T . kG . ) and methyl - ethyl - ketone can be used All surfaces must be welding has many useful and advantageous applications wiped dry with a clean cloth . Cleaners should not be used as described in the following paragraphs . In order to use after a jo _ ntis assembled prior to welding the T . LG . process w _ th an AC welder , a htgh - frequency Striking the arc may be accomphshed as follows attachment must be provided Figure 1 shows a typica _ hookup using this high - frequency attachment with a Crafts - 1 . Touching the electrode to the work momentardy and man welder . When not using the TJ . G . welding process , the quickly withdrawing it a shortdistance . ( DC power source ) high - frequency attachment also permits easy " arc " start - 2 . Use of an apparatus which will cause a spark to jump ing and greatly improved results with many hard - to - weld without touching the electrode to the work . ( AC power rods ( low hydrogen rods ) as well as making the welding operation much easier to perform . source with high - frequency unit attachment ) The high - frequency arc stabiffzer provides for this latter The use of a high - frequency attachment makes possible the establishment of an arc without touching the electrode to method of starting the arc . Such devices are not required the work . Once the arc has been estabhshed , it is stabihzed with DC , consequently it is usuafly necessary to touch the electrode to the work to start the arc . by the high - frequency output . This is essential in the T . I . G . process in order to avoid contaminating the tungsten elec - For manua _ welding , once the arc is started , the electrode trade or the work . holder is held with the electrode positioned at an angle of about 75 degrees to the surface of the weld puddle as PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION shown in figure 2 . To start the welding , the holder is usually moved in a small circle until a pool of molten metal of suit - The necessary heat for inert - gas welding ( nonconsumable ) able size is obtained . Once adequate fusion ts achieved at is produced by an electric arc maintained between the non - consumable electrode and the work - piece . The electrode any one point , a weld is made by graduaffy moving the electrode along the parts to be welded to melt the adloin - usedfor carrying the current is usually a tungsten or tungsten Fng edges progressively , adding filler rod as required alloy rod . The heated weld zone , the molten metal and the Solidification of the melted metal follows progression of nonconsumable electrode are shielded from the oxidizing the arc along the iomt and completes the welding cycle effects of the atmosphere by a blanket of inert gas fed through the T . I . G torch and the weld is made by applying Material thickness , joint design and weld characterLshcsld the arc heat untll the abutting edges of the work . pieces are desired will determine whether or not filler metal shou melted , adding filler rod If necessary . The resultant pool be added to the joints . When fll ) er metal is added during of molten metal , upon sohdifying , joins the edges of the manual welding , it is apphed by hand feeding the filler rod members together . The process may also be used for adding ( from the side ) into the pool of molten metal in the region metal to surfaces , locally - melting and spot - jolnlng parts of the arc . Filler rod is added in essentlally the sQmemanner when welding by the oxyacetylene method A thorough cleaning of the surface to be welded is required .
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( 2 ) MOVE ( 31Ann _ ( 11DEVELOP FILLERMETAL THPE . OOL TO C . DIRECTION f _ / / / I / / / 77 / / / / / / / / / / / 3 _ Lf . OO \ f @ WORKPIECE ( 5 ) MOVETORCH ADDITIONOF TO LEADINGEI ) GE _ FILLERMETAL ( 4 ) REMOVEROE } ( VERTICAL _ " s ° " i POSITION ) o , PUODL _ / / / / S / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / _ ; ' / / / / / / _ / / / / / / / A Figure 3 " [ he filler rod is usually held at an angle of approximately electrodes are alloyed with small percentages of thorium 15 degrees to the work and slowly fed into the weld puddle . or zirconium . Suchelectrodes have the advantage of greater One of the most commonly used techniquesfor feeding filler current - carrying capacity For a given diameter , a more rod is shown in figure 3 . Another method , used mostoften stable arc at low current values , and longer llfe with less in multiple - pass welding of vee pints , is to press the filter deposit of tungsten in the welds . rod into the vee groove in line with the weld and melt it along with joint edges . Still another method , used fre - TYPES OF GAS TO USE quently in making large welds , is to feed filler metal con - Either argon , helium , or a mixture of the two can be used with tinuously into the weld puddle by oscdloting the filler roder the T . I . G . process . Argon is used most frequently because : and arc from one side of the weld to the other . The fill red moves in one direction while the arc moves in the 1 . It provides general suitability with a wide variety of opposite direction , but the filler rod is at all times in close metals . proximity to the arc and feeding into the weld puddle . 2 . It mamtalns a stabilizing influence on the welding arc Joints may be welded by the TJ . G . process include all 3 . It costs less ( due to the lower flow rates required ) . standard types , suchas square abutting edge , vee buff , tee and lap connections . It is seldom necessary " to bevel edges Helium isgenerany used when welding heavy metal sections of materlal ll8 - inch or less , although heavier materials are because it provides greater weld penetration . Mixtures of usually beveled . Whenever joints are beveted , filler ma - argon and helium are useful when a balance of these char - teria ( must always be added . acteristics is desired . The accompanying table provides a guide to the type of Argon isgenerally supplied in K - cylinders , having a capac . ty current recommended for welding some typical materials . of approximately 238 cubic feet at a pressure of 2200 psi , ElectTodesused for the T . hG . ( nonconsumable ) process may or in T - cylinders , having a capacity of approximately 330 be pure tungsten or tungsten alloy . Pure tungsten electrodes cubic feet at a pressure of 2640 psi . Purity of commercial were formerly used exclusively . At this time , however , many argon ranges between 99.95 % and 99.99 % . APernse _ Current * Direct Currellt St _ lllz _ d St _ ght IP _ t _ ity Reverse POlaritY Material I i = Current Selectionfor Inert . gas Magnesium up to _ z - m th = ck v " \ / Magnesium above % s - m thick _ / \ ' ( nonconsumablew ) elding MaEneslumcastings % / _ , , \ Alummumupto _ 2 - in thick _ / _ / Aluminum over _ 3a - , n th , ck x / v Alurnm _ m castmgs \ / V ' % / Stamless steel V \ / Brass alloys v ' x / _ lllCOn copper _ _ / S11ver % / _ , / Higb - chromium , nickel - base , high temperature alloys _ / V % / Silver cladding _ / x / Harb facing _ / _ , ' % , t Cast iron _ / V ' " v Low - carbonsteel , 0 015 to 0 030 in t % / % / Lowcarbon steel 0 030 to O 125 in " / _ / High - carbonsteel , O O15 to 0 030 in % / x / \ / High - carbonsteel , 0.030 in and up " _ / \ / Deoxidized copper _ % / \ 1 % / • Where alternating currs _ t is recommended as a second choif ; _ , J _ US _ about 25 % hlsher current than that reco _ lmended for OCSP DO riot Use elternatln _ current On tightly jigged parts ; Use braZlCg flux Or slllCO _ b _ ont _ flu : _ for 1 / 4 inch anr _ thicker 1 - 20
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WELDING ROD SPECJFICATmONS AWS E - 6011 MBLD STEEL AC - DC GENERAL APPLICATIONS : Farm Equipment o Sheet Metal • Car and Truck e Body and Fender e Pipe • Tanks • Maintenance • Jigs and Fixtures e Cabinets • General Repairs oStructuralSteel SIZES AND HEATS ( AMPS ) Diameter . . . . 1 / 16 " 3 / 32 " 1 / 8 " 20 - 55 20 - 80 75 - 130 100 - 175 150 - 225 175 - 25 ( : 200 - 375 Fiat 75 - 115 100 - 150 150 - 200 Vertical 20 - 55 20 - 65 1 / 4 " 5 / 32 ' " I 3 / 16 " i 7 / 32 " 20 - 55 20 - 65 75 - 115 100 - t50 Overhead J SPECl FICATIONS MEETS _ , American WeldingSociety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ( : lass : E - 6011 Military . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MI L - E - t5599C THESE AmericanBureauof Shipping . . . . . . . . . . . . Class : E - 6011 REQUIREMENTS V St rest ; Relieved Physical Properties of Deposited Metal : As Welded 65,000 to 70,000 psi Tensile Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70,000 to 75,000 psi 55,000 to 60,060 psi Yield Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00,000 to 05,000 psi 30 % to 35 % % Elongation in 2 - inches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 % to 25 % Redaction in Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 % to 55 % 65 % to 75 % DESCRIPTION The AWS E - 6Oll is an AC - DC ( reverse polarity ) electrode with a special coating that provides strong fluxing action for high quality welds , even in dirty , rust covered , galvanized or plated steels . An extremely stable , spray type penetrating arc , i s produced that is easy to start and restart after interruption . It is a versatile electrode , producing welds far beyond the requirements of its A . W . S . classification . It adapts to a wide variety of jobs due to the wide range of amperage settings at which top quality results are obtained . Features : Deeper Penetration - - Fast - Freeze Puddle - - Greater Arc Stability . WELDING PROCEDURE : Weld with AC or DC ( reverse polarity ) . Strike the arc by brushing rod tip lightly at the point where weld is to be made . After the arc is established and weld material is deposited , concentrate on holding a short arc that is just long enough to keep the electrode from touching the molten metal . In the flat position , use a slight oscillating motion as you advance . In vertical position , on sheet steel start at the top of the seam and weld down . This provides a more rapid speed of travel , lower penetration , and minimum warpage . When welding overhead use a straight stringer bead or a circular motion . Keep the molten pool as small as possible . Use small electrodes overhead , none larger than 5 / 32 diameter . 21
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WELDmNG ROE ) SPECIFiCATiONS AWS E - 6013 MILD STEEL AC - DC multi - purpose all position GENERAL APPLICATIONS : Farm Equipment • Car and Truck • Sheet Metal o P _ pe • Tanks = Boilers • Strucl _ ural Steel t Maintenance Repairs • General Repair Work SIZES ANO HEATS ( AMPS ) I D la i , tl _ ret 5164 " 5t32 " 3 / 16 " 1 / 4 " I Flat 20 - 55 20 - 75 75 - 130 100 - 175 150 - 225 200 - 375 Vertical 20 - 55 20 - 65 75 - 115 100 - 150 150 - 200 3132 " 1 1 / 8 " Overhead 20 - 55 20 - 65 75 - 115 100 - 150 SPECI FICATIONS MEETS THESE Military . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MIL - E - 15599C AmericanWeldm9 Socaety . . . . . . . . . . . . Class E - 0013 REQUIREMENTS & MI L - E - G843A AmericanBureauof Shipping . . . . . . Class E - 6013 Phyr _ cal Properties of Deposited Metal As Welded Stre _ Relieved Tensde Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75,000 to 80,000 psi 65,000 to 70,000 psi Yield Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62,000 to 67,000 psi 50,000 to 60,000 ps _ 27 % to 35 % % Elongation tn 2 - inches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 % to 29 % Reduction m Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 % to 55 % 60 % to 70 % DESCRIPTION The AWS , E - 6013 is a general purpose mild steel electrode for use with AC or DC . It produces a very stable , easily handled arc xhroughout a w _ de amperage range . The moderately penetrating and easdy d _ rected arc provides excellent results in all positions ( flat , vertical or overhead ) and is = deal for single pass hor _ , , ontal fillet welds . Spatter loss is low , as the weld metal solid = hes qu = cklv producing a closely r _ ppled deposit with good appearance . Even though it is designed for production welding in mild steel fabrication , th _ s rod = s excellent for multi - purpose use where sound durable welds are requ = rod . The arc is easdy started , even at low amperage settings for hght gauge steel , yet is stable at the high amperages needed for higher welding speeds , and for heavrer sections Use w _ th AC or DC ( see recommended amperages ) Hold a short are , lust tong enough to keep " _ heelectrode from touch = rig the molter metal . ] re flat posit = on single pass fdlets or butt welds may be made w _ th or w _ thout weaving Weld from bottom up on vertical welding of heavy sections Welding down on light material or fillets produces excellent results Use 5 / 32 - inch or smaller electrodes for overhead work , mal < lng e _ ther stringer or weawng beads . 2 - 2
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WELDING ROD SPECmFICATaONS HARD SURFACING AC - DC medium chrome - carbon electrode GENERAL APPLICATIONS Tractor Grousers and Rollers e Scraper Blades e Agri - cultural Implements e Plow Shares e Hitches • Power Shovel o D = pper Teeth and Drive Sprockets o Coal Cutters • Conveyor Roils o MmmgBuckets e Rock Crushers • etc SIZES AND HEATS ( AMPS ) Otameter 3 / 32 " 1 / 8 " 5 / 32 " 3 / 15 " 7 / 32 " 1 / 4 " I Amperes 55 - 85 100 - 130 130 - 150 175 200 175 - 250 225 - 275 I SPECl FICATIONS MEETS . . . . . MIL - E - 19141C THESE _ Md = tary REQUIREMENTS V Physfcal Properties of Deposited Meta _ 450 - 500 Brmel _ Hardness As Welded Condttmn ( Rockwell " C " 46 - 50 ) . . . . . . . 500 - 550 Brmell Hardness After Cold Working ( Rockwell " C " 50 - 54 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . DESCRIPTION The Medium Chrome - Carbon rod is a hard - surfacing alloy steel electrode with a coating of powdered me _ als and flux When welding , th = s special coating combines _ n the arc with the steel core wire to give an extremely hard weld - metal deposit Deposited weld metal requires no heat treatment for maximum strength , duetdlty , and wear resistance Anneahng or heat treating wdl not soften the metal deposit , which is not machinable , but may be hot forged to any desired shape . Oepos = ted metal has a very fine gram and is free of slag and porosity The metal _ stough and h _ ghly resistant to wear and , mpact The rod = s designed for use wJth eltber AC or DC ( rather DOlarlty ) . Hold a medium short are and deposit the metal w _ th a weaving motion Excellent welding results are obtained = n eJther the vertical or flat positron WELDING PROCEDURE : Grind the surface to clean and remove shallow cracks , rust , or other foreign material Cracks too deep lco be removed by grinding should be gouged out with a cutting torch or cutting rod Use the " drag " technique to deposit weld metal , to thin edges when desirable or weave a wfder bead , or use a " free " arc
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WELDING ROD SPECIFnCAT | ONS AWS E - 7014 CONTACT AC - DC for welding of mild steel GENERAL APPLICATIONS : Sheet Metal Fabrication and Repairs a Machinery Fabrication e Construction Equipment Repairs e Storage Tanks e Shipbuddmg Fabricating Structural Shapes and Heavy Equipment e Equtpment and Heavy Pipe Welding . SIZES AND HEATS ( AMPS ) I Diameter . . . . 1116 " _ 3 / 32 " 1 / 8 " 5 / 32 " ' I 3 / 16 " 1 / 4 " 14 " Length 12 " 14 " I I 1901 - 42 " 10 I 2001 - 82 ' " 50 2501 - 83 " 50 130 - 165 Amperes 70 - 90 90 - 110 SPECIFICATIONS MEETS _ , THESE W AmedcanWeldingSocmty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ClassE - 7014 REQUIREMENTS V AmericanBureauof Shipping . . . . . . . . . . . Class E - 7014 Physical Properties of Deposited Meta ! As Welded TensileStrength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72,000 ps ! to 76,000 psi Yield Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60,000 ps _ to 69,000 psi % Elongation in 2 - inches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 % to 28 % DESCRIPTION The AWS E - 7014 is an excellent electrode for the inexperienced or experienced welder . Starts on contact with smooth surge - free arc , also restrlkes instantly . This Craftsman electrode has powdered iron in the coating which makes welding easier and faster . The slag is easy to remove in most cases self - peehng as the weld cools Ideal for fixture welding where weld appearance and lack of spatter is important . The amount of slag permits use in all welding positions WELDING PROCEDURES : Weld materials should be clean . Best results are obtained when ht - up is good Either AC or DC current may be used . When arc ts estabhshed , deposit metal holding a short arc or place electrode in contact w _ th work . 24
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WELDING ROD SPECiFmCATnONS MACHINABLE CAST iRON AC - DC machineable welds on all cast irons GENERAL APPLICATIONS : Cylinder Blocks e Crankcases e ValveSeats e Defective Castings e Gears e Sprockets e Casting Repairs in General e Garages • Farms ® Shops SIZES AND HEATS ( AMPS ) i 0iameter I 3 / 32 " i 1 / 8 " 5 / 32 " 3 / 16 " 75 - 130 100 - 150 130 - 175 Amperes 48 - 85 DESCRIPTION This electrode uses a nickel core wire , and produces a fully machinable weld without pre - heating the casting . Cast irons can be joined to steel , nickel alloys and copper . This electrode operates with AC or DC ( reverse polarity ) . It has very stable arc characteristics . It is recommended for automotive repairs • such as cylinder blocks , crank cases , valve seats and other cast iron parts . In maintenance and repairs it is used on gears , sprockets , and many farm machinery parts . WELDING PROCEDURE : Remove all dirt and grease from work piece before starting to weld . A cutting electrode may be used to burn a groove along the break where the weld is to be made . This cutting electrode removes the grease and scale , and then seals in any oil soaked into the cast iron . Use the lowest amperage that gives good fusion , During cooling , peen hammer the weld to relieve strain and stress . CUTTaNG ROD AC - DC quick , inexpensive , easy cuts through all metals GENERAL APPLICATIONS : Cutting • Piercing • Gouging • Scarfing e Beveling • etc . SIZES AND HEATS ( AMPS ) 3 / 16 " 130 - 175 Amperes - AC 80 - 150 75 - 130 100 - t50 I Diameter . . . . . . I 3 / 32 " 1 / 8 " 5 / 32 " Amperes - DC 150 - 250 DESCRIPTION For piercing , gouging , cutting • and scarfing . Excellent for removing old welds in preparation to rewelding . Also used for beveling cracks in castings or removing sharp edges prior to welding . Needs no oxygen or special equipment to cut carbon steels , stainless steel , manganese steel • cast iron , etc . Recommended for the owners of all arc welders . AC or DC , WELDING PROCEDURE : Place electrode in holders so that it's positioned like a lance in the direction of travel . The angle between the electrode and work metal should not exceed 15 ° , Strike arc at starting point . Push electrode along the line of cut , forcing the molten metal ahead and away . If deeper gouge is required , repeat procedure until the desired depth has been reached . 25
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REPAIR PARTS PARTS LIST FOR CRAFTSMAN 295 AMP ARC WELDER MODEL 113.201392 12 53 54 41 21 52 37 24 45 42 14 25 \ 28 29 30 31 \ 26 \ - , . ® 24 + 32 33 32 16 34 35 2 - 6
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PARTS LIST FOR CRAFTSMAN 295 AMP ARC WELDER MODEL 113.201392 Always Order by Part Number - - not by Key Number Pert Key Key Part No . No . Description No . No . Description 1 30 STD 501102 STD 541110 * Nut , Hex 10 - 32 * Screw , Socket Set 10 _ 32 x 1 / 4 ' 2 STD 551210 * Lockwasher , No . 10 Internal 31 61315 Blade Assembly , Fan 3 STD 611005 ; * Screw , Type A8 Pan Hd . No . 10 x 1 / 2 32 STD 551208 * Lockwasher , No . 8 Ext . Tooth 4 33 STD 541008 * Nut , Hex 8 - 32 61339 Plate , Selector 34 5 61276 61264 + Holder , Electrode Spacer 35 61190 6 STD 551008 + Clamp , Work * Washer , 3 / 16 x 3 / 8 x 1 / 32 ( Includes Key No . 36 & 37 ) 7 STD 511110 * Screw , Pan Hd . 10 - 32 x 7 / 8 36 STD 561025 * Washer , 17 / 64 x 47 / 64 x 1 / 16 8 61300 Pointer 37 ISTD 522507 * Screw , Hex Hd . 1 / 4 - 20 x 3 / 4 9 61278 Knob 61342 161279 38 Cable Assembly , Work 10 Bushing , 3 / 8 x 1 39 iSTD 510805 * Screw , Pan Hd . 8 - 32 x 9 / 16 11 60325 * Washer , 3 / 8 x 1 - 3 / 8 x 3 / 64 40 STD 512507 * Screw , SL Tr . Hd . 1 / 4 - 20 x 5 / 8 12 61280 Cabinet , Top 41 STD 510607 * Screw , M . Pan Hd . 6 - 32 x 3 / 4 13 STD 541025 * Nut , Hex 1 / 4 - 20 42 61310 Cable Assembly , Electrode 14 STD 551225 * Lockwasher , 1 / 4 Internal 43 30332 15 STD 551025 Insulator , Plug * Washer , 17 / 64 x 47 / 64 x 1 / 16 44 61171 STD 541006 Plug , Selector 16 * Nut , Hex 6 - 32 45 61086 Relief , Strain 17 STD 511105 * Screw , Pan Hd . 10 _ 32 x 1 / 2 46 61338 Cabinet , Bottom 18 37525 Ring , Outlet Box External 47 61269 Switch 19 37526 Cover , Outlet Box STD 551010 48 * Washer , 13 / 64 x 3 / 4 x 1 / 32 20 30298 Terminal , Ground 49 61311 Lead , Primary 21 61335 Bracket , Guide 50 61115 Block No . 2 , Contact Mounting 22 STD 601103 * Screw , Type T Pan Hd . 10 - 32 x 3 / 8 61116 61332 51 Contact , Selector Plug 23 Slide , Shunt 61117 24 52 Block No . 1 , Contact Mounting 61333 Guide , Shunt 61265 + Helmet 25 53 61334 Spring 54 37435 26 Wrench , Hex 1 / 4 61385 Core Assembly , Moving @ 61307 27 Transformer Assembly Bag Assembly , Loose Parts 61341 Owners Manual ( not illustrated ) 28 61314 Motor 29 61302 Bracket , Fan * Standard Hardware item - - May be Purchased Locally . + Stock Item - May be secured through the hardware department of most Sears Retail Stores or Catalog Order Houses . eTransformer not replaceable . 27
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295 AMP DUAL RANGE ARC WELDER $ ERVmCE Now that you have purchased your 295 amp arc welder , should a need ever exist for repair parts or service , simply contact any Sears Service Center and most Sears , Roebuck and Co . stores . Be sure to provide all pertinent facts when you call or visit . The model number of your 295 amp arc welder will be found on a plate attached to your welder , at the rear of the cabinet . HOW TO ORDER WHEN ORDERING REPAIR PARTS , ALWAYS GIVE THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION : REPAIR PARTS PART DESCRIPTION PART NUMBER MODEL NUMBER NAME OF ITEM 295 AMP ARC WELDER 113.201392 All parts listed may be ordered from any Sears Service Center and most Sears stores . If the parts you need are not stocked locally , your order will be electronically transmitted to a Sears Repair Parts Distribution Center for handling . Sold by SEARS , ROEBUCK AND CO . , Chicago , IL 60684 U . S . A , Part No , 61 341 Form No . SP4272 - 2 Printed in U . S . A . ! 2 / 80
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