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10 cents Powe / tlooC / Hwufwofe AUTHORIZED DEALER PREPARED BY TCC - - = i ~ CORPORATION â€¢ SPRINGFIELD , MASS .
INTRODUCTION Owning a home workshop is not only a healthful hobby but a very lucrative pastime . With power tools anyone can do professional woodworking and thus handle home repairs and improvements , make furniture , toys , MOTOR MOUNT gifts , etc . You can start your home work - shop with one power tool and add others as ELEVATING you acquire the need for them . WHEEL TILTING Many home craftsmen do not have a com - WHEEL plete workshop . You will find by reading FIGURE 1 this booklet that the various operations pos - sible on one or two power tools will enable THE CIRCULAR SAW you to do hundreds of fast , accurate jobs . A circular saw is the basic power tool for any shop . In choosing a circular saw it is best The purpose of this booklet is to show to get a tilting arbor saw . With this type some of the numerous ways you can use your saw you always have the convenience and power tools to best advantage . After you safety of a level surface to work on . . . the blade tilts for angular ripping or cross cut - have become familiar with these common ting . You will find the best workmanship shop procedures you can obtain further and quality in the tilting arbor saws , in information from numerous sources . preference to the tilting table or stationary blade saw . Remember , it is a good idea to This booklet has been prepared by Tool - get the best first . kraft Corporation of Springfield , Mass . , There is no limit to the many operations manufacturers of Darra - James Power Tools . you can do on a tilting arbor saw with expert results . You can cross cut , rip and miter cut wood and other materials . You can make rabbett and mortise cuts for frames , screens , etc . Rough lumber can be cut to size and shape desired .
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS Before using power saws remember these few hints : Loose ties and floppy sleeves are dangerous . Roll up sleeves or have them down with cuffs fastened . Do not stand directly in back of blade while cutting to prevent injury from sudden kickback of work . Kickbacks are caused while ripping lumber with knots or binding of work caused by misalignment of blade and fence . Always use a pusher stick when sawing narrow work COMBINATION CROSSCUT RIP ( see Figure 4 ) . Always stop saw before making any adjustments , when removing FIGURE 2 stock , or cleaning table . Examine wood carefully to make sure it is free of nails or CROSSCUT SAW BLADES other foreign matter . Apply kerosene to the blade before cutting raw wood with excessive The crosscut saw blade is designed to cut pitch . across the grains of a board . The teeth are Hold wood firmly against miter gage or designed to slice cleanly . rip fence and feed with blade raised just enough to cut through material . Feed RIP SAW BLADES slowly . . . do not force faster than blade cuts . Keep your bench saw clean and free of The rip saw blade is designed for greatest sawdust . efficiency when sawing a board lengthwise in the direction of the grain . When a given STATIC ELECTRICITY job consists entirely of rip - sawing , use of the rip saw blade will save much time . A user may at times receive a slight shock upon touching the saw , leading him to think COMBINATION SAW BLADES there is faulty wiring . This is usually caused by a charge of static electricity built up by The combination blade is designed to give friction between moving parts , such as the greatest efficiency in both crosscutting between V - belt and pulley . This can be and ripping when the job consists of general eliminated by grounding to a water or heat - crosscutting , ripping and mitering where time ing pipe . waste and trouble of changing blades would be excessive . The crosscut teeth shear the SELECTION OF SAW BLADE wood in parallel grooves and the raker chisels the fibers out from between . The blade cuts Four types of circular saw blades are used slower than blades designed for these special - for all ordinary wood work . ized functions .
HOLLOW GROUND BLADES RIP SAWING The hollow ground blade is designed for Rip sawing is cutting the wood with the specialized sawing . The teeth are not bent grain . The fence is usually used to control outward to form a set . The body of the the width of the cut . At least one edge of blade is ground in on both sides to obtain the work should be as straight as possible as clearance and permit free running without it is pushed along the fence . When sawing binding . Since the teeth are not bent out - narrow boards , use a push stick as shown ward , they do not scratch the sides of the in Figure 4 . kerf , hence the cut edge of the board looks as if it had been planed . CROSSCUTTING Crosscutting is cutting the wood across the grain . At least one edge of the board should be as straight as possible . Hold this edge of the work firmly against miter gauge . Usually , the miter gauge is placed in back of the work as shown in Figure 3 . Miter gauge can be reversed when crosscutting wide boards and pushed ahead of the board while holding board firmly against miter . FIGURE 4 Rip sawing with fence â€” - using push stick . MITER SAWING Miters are crosscuts at an angle . At least one edge of the work should be as straight as possible . The miter gauge should be set at the desired angle to make the cut . The FIGURE 3 straight edge of the material should be held tightly in position against the face of the Crosscutting with work held against miter . miter gauge . 5
SANDING WITH THE CIRCULAR SAW The circular saw can be a very efficient disc sander by simply using a sanding disc in place of saw blade . Sanding disc can have different grits of sandpaper on either side . FIGURE 5 Miter sawing with extension rods holding work . FIGURE 7 Hold work against miter gauge and downward side of sanding disc . FIG . 6 : Using auxiliary board on miter gauge . THE DADO HEAD If wide or long work is sawed , it is advis - The dado head is used to cut rabbets and able to screw or bolt an auxiliary extension grooves of various widths and depths . The board to the face of the miter gauge as shown dado head is composed of two outside saw in Figure 6 . To prevent binding and chat - blades and a set of chippers . If two or more tering , this board should be attached so there chippers are used , they should be spaced as will be J - jj " space between it and the saw equally as possible around the circumference table . A piece of fine sandpaper cemented of the assembled head to avoid vibration . ( rough side out ) to the face of the miter First , mount one of the saw blades , which gauge or auxiliary extension board will help are the combination type , on the saw arbor . to hold the work in position . Then mount one or more chipper blades . 8
FIGURE 9 FIGURE 8 The assembled dado head . The cutting edges of the chipper blades are swaged or spread . The chipper cutting edges should coincide with the gullets ( the space between tips of adjacent saw teeth ) of both saw blades . If the saw blades have both crosscut and raker teeth , the chipper cutting edges should coincide with the raker teeth gullets . After the assembled dado head is placed in posi - tion , replace outer washer and arbor nut . Be sure to tighten arbor nut securely . If dado set is too wide outside washer can be left off . The guard and splitter assembly should be removed when the dado head is used . When - ever the dado head is used , the dado insert plate should be placed in the saw table . CUTTING DADOES Grooves cut across the grain of the wood are called dadoes . They are usually cut at right angles , but may also be cut at other FIGURE 10 Cutting a groove with the dado head . angles . As operations with a dado head are similar to using a saw blade , the miter gauge RABBET CUTTING should be used in the same manner . A rabbet is a step - like cut made on the end GROOVE CUTTING or edge of a board . They are quickly cut A channel cut made with the grain of the when the fence is used as a guide . The dado wood is called a groove . As operations with head assembly should be slightly wider than a dado head are similar to using a saw blade , the rabbet desired to insure a clean edge . The the fence should be used in the same manner rabbet should be cut on the edge of the board suggested for rip sawing . furthest from the fence 10
FIGURE 1 1 : Molding cutter heads . THE MOLDING CUTTER HEAD ASSEMBLY FIGURE 12 A typical molding head ( Figure 11 ) assem - Molding cutter head in use with auxiliary fence boards . bly is composed of the molding head , an Guide boards held with C clamps keep work from Allen type wrench , a spacer bushing , } â€¢ Â£ " jumping . and % " arbor bushings , and a set of ( 3 ) cut - ter blades . The head should be assembled as follows : MOLDING CUTTER FENCE 1 . Insert each cutter blade into head with It is easy to adapt your rip fence to a cutting edge ( high edge ) toward front and molding cutter fence as follows : secure with the lock screws . Figure 11 1 . Make two ^ " thick auxiliary fence shows the assembled cutter head . boards the exact height and length of the rip 2 . The molding head is installed in place fence . of the regular saw blade as follows : 2 . From a % " thick piece of scrap lumber Then place assembled head onto arbor make a shim board the exact height and with cutting edges facing front of saw . length of the rip fence . As the regular saw insert plate cannot be 3 . Place the rip fence in operating position used in the table , it will be necessary to use on the saw table . a molding cutter or dado insert plate . 4 . Place the shim board against the rip Turn head manually to determine if â€” fence and one auxiliary board against the Head is running true . shim board so they will match the height and All head parts clear all saw parts . length of the rip fence . 11 12
5 . All three parts should be securely clamped together and the rip fence clamped into position so the auxiliary board will be over the cutter head . 6 . Then use a set of planer and jointer cutter blades in the head to cut a semi - circu - lar notch in the bottom edge of the auxiliary board for cutter clearance . TILTING 7 . The cutter blades should be below the TABLE top of the table when the work is placed in position . \ 8 . Start the saw and gradually raise the height of the molding head , taking as many shallow cuts as necessary to cut the notch 1 " deep . Feed work slowly . 9 . Prepare the other auxiliary fence board in like manner and mount the two boards on opposite sides of the rip fence with counter - TILT SCALE sunk bolts and nuts . Figure 12 shows the FIGURE 14 finished molding cutter fence in use . THE JIG SAW The jig ( or scroll ) saw is the safest and easiest power tool to operate . Anyone can learn to operate it with a few minutes prac - tice . It is the ideal tool to teach youngsters the principles of wood working . The numerous features of a jig saw include its ability to cut decorative , especially inside , curves . Blades are quickly changed for cut - ting all kinds of materials , including metal . Sabre files can be used for effortless filing operations . The jig saw runs slower and requires less power to operate than any other tool . It is advisable to use a multiple step pulley on the motor so speeds can be changed for vari - FIGURE 13 ous operations . As a rule speeds are reduced Typical molding cutter knives . for harder materials . 14 13
The hold - down foot and blade guide are JIG SAW BLADES , SABER BLADES AND FILES lowered to ride on work being sawed . This Blades which are held in both the upper prevents the work from jumping on the up and lower chucks are commonly known as stroke of the blade . The built - in blower in fret and jeweler's blades . The jeweler's upper plunger directs a stream of air on cut - blades are used for most operations ; how - ting area , clearing away sawdust from pat - ever , always use the largest and thickest tern line . Back edge of blade should ride blade , with the coarsest teeth that will give in slot of blade guide . you a clean cut and still allow for cutting the The secret of efficient jig sawing is to feed necessary curves . the work slowly . Don't force the work . Feed mostly with one hand . Guide work with the other , resting it on table if possible . When cutting to a pattern you will find it easier if you keep a smooth continuous feed - ing and twisting motion instead of a jerky stop and start movement . FIGURE 16 Fret , jig and saber blades . In general , when cutting sharp curves use a thin , narrow blade , changing to the heavier blades wherever possible . When cutting metal use fine - tooth blades with as heavy a body as possible . ( See Figure 20 under band saws . ) Plastics should be cut with either wood or metal cutting blades . The width , thickness and number of teeth in the blades will depend on the type of plastics to be cut . When mounting jig saw blade , tilt the saw table , insert the blade through the hole in the table , then place between the lower chucks and tighten screws . Turn the pulley by hand until the blade is at the top of the stroke . Pull down the upper shaft , insert blade in slot and tighten by means of set - Tilting table locks at any screws . Caution : Be sure to turn pulley by angle . Note adjustable blade FIGURE 15 hand , and check tension of saw blade before backing guide under table . turning on motor . 15 16
Sabre blades are used primarily for cutting pierced work . They have a heavier body than most jeweler's blades and will give a faster cutting action . Holes in pierced work are put in with your drill press in the most suitable places with respect to your design . On inside of work it is very simple to jump from one opening to another , thereby speed - ing up your operations . Sabre blades are approximately one - half inch shorter than jeweler's blades , and are mounted between the lower chucks , as above , but are not fastened in the upper shaft . Many techniques used for jig sawing are the same as used in band sawing . See band saw instructions . LONG CUT FIGURE 17 When work calls for two cuts , the short cut should be made first . FIGURE 19 SABER FILES THE BAND SAW In order to use files in your jig saw it is In the home workshop the ba . nd saw will necessary to remove the lower chuck and do bevel ripping , straight ripping and cross - then insert the shank of the file in the hole cutting at angles from 90 to 45 degrees . It in the lower shaft and tighten by means of will handle curved work of almost any shape setscrews . where the pattern is sawed through from side to side of the stock . It will not handle in - side scroll work where the starting cut can - CROSS SECTION OF SABER FILES not be made from one edge of the material . SHOWS VARIOUS SHAPES FOR This type work is for the jig saw . ALL KINDS OF FILING JOBS . A â€¢ ^ The size of band saws is indicated by the distance from frame to blade . Thus a 12 " band saw would cut through the center of a FIGURE 18 24 " board . 17 18
FIGURE 22 The band saw gives a smooth , even cut because it gives a continuous downward On straight ripping cuts , stroke . Operating the band saw is similar the left hand is held along - to the jig saw but easier in some respects side the work and acts as because there is no tendency for work to a pivot . Right hand swings jump . Feed with an even , gentle pressure , the work to follow line . not forcing faster than the blade cuts . There are various width blades for different cutting jobs . Naturally you use a narrow blade for sharp curves and a wider blade for fl TANGENT straight cuts or wide curves . CUTS Follow these suggestions when choosing a blade : Choose one for the sharpest curve you f intend to make . See selection chart below . Always use the widest blade that will do the job . On straight cuts use your widest blade . FIGURE 23 Cut sharp curves with a series of tangent cuts . It is often more practical to turn and cut through waste stock rather than pull back . Sharp curves often may be cut easily by first drilling a hole near the turn . Square corners are cut out by first cutting a radius , then returning to saw out corner from each side . Get the feel of the blade with a few practice cuts . Don't force work against the FIGURE 20 blade in excess of the cutting capacity . Chart shows minimum radius for each blade width . Short side of narrow FIGURE 21 grooves must be nibbled . Backtracking and pickup Technique is useful on cuts often can be avoided many jobs . It works best by boring holes in the with a heavily set blade . work to allow for shifting 1st CUT of the blade position . FIGURE 24 20 19
TILTING - ARBOR BAND SAW i i Above , folding , or coiling , a band saw blade is easy if you know how . Grasp the blade as shown above and twist slowly . FOLDING BAND SAW BLADE It is a simple matter to fold band saw blades into small spiral of thirds , if you follow instructions carefully . Avoid kinking blade . FIG . 27 : Shows fitting - arbor band saw at 46 Â° backward Always hold blade firmly and don't let it tilt , 6 Â° forward oncT900 . twist in your hand while folding . Toolkraft Corporation has taken several steps for - Teeth are toward you â€” position shown ward in developing the new tilting - arbor band saw . in illustration . Twist with arrows and keep The revolutionary new Darra - James model # 512 tilts following through , gradually moving hands the blade and not the table . This gives the operator a closer together , until blade flops into spiral . level working surface as well as many other advantages . If you fail on the first try keep at it â€” sud - The counterbalanced upper frame tilts easily , allowing denly it will come to you . DO NOT KINK the angle of cut to be varied while sawing . Blade the blade . guides remain in constant adjustment through all angles of tilt . Thus you can cut angles on circular work or vary the cutting angle as required on model boat making , etc . Model # 512 is one of the safest saws made . Blade The folded blade makes a is completely enclosed front and rear . Spring tension neat coil of thirds as is instantly released for blade changing . All wheels are illustrated . ball bearing and rubber tired . Blade guides have brass side inserts and ball bearing blade - backing wheels . 22
STOP FENCE TENSION ADJ . & BELT ALIGNMENT FIGURE 31 FIG . 28 : It is easy to cut a curved bevel on the 512 . THE BELT - DISC SANDER Power sanders save much time and effort in the home workshop . Fresh - cut lumber can be sanded smooth . Mitered , curved and irregular lumber can be trued . A belt - disc sander has the advantage of handling all kinds of sanding jobs with ease and accu - racy . Various types of sanding discs and belts add to the versatility of this machine . OPERATING THE SANDER Sanding belt should not be too tight . There should be about % " play in belt on back side of machine . To check proper tension , place a straight edge lengthwise on the belt touch - ing the two drums on underside of machine FIG . 30 : To remove blade FIG . 29 : Metal cutting . . . belt should be easily pushed in % " from simply push spring tension with variable speed straight edge . knob . attachment . For best results a light , firm pressure Capacity of cut is 15 " at 45 Â° and 12 " at 90 Â° . Depth should be used to hold work against the belt . of cut is 9 " at 45 Â° and 7Vi " at 90 Â° . Tilts to 46 Â° back - If work is longer than the table , it should be ward and 7 Â° forward . started at one end and gradually pushed to Available accessories are rip fence , miter gauge , the other end . floor stand , variable speed attachment and assorted Contour sanding , inside curves should be blades for cutting various metals , plastics , etc . done on end drum . 23 24
Avoid wearing loose clothing , long FIGURE 32 neckties . Keep sleeves rolled up . Ad - Flexible belt sanding just motor so that pulleys on sander and can be done on back motor are in line . side of belt when in up - Check setscrews in motor and drive shaft right position ( Figure pulleys to see that they are tight at all times . 32 ) . This is a good way Maintain proper tension on " V " belt to to sand gradual curves prevent slippage . Too much tension will such as the outside cause unnecessary wear on " V " belt and curve on rockers . Keep bearings . the work moving while Wear goggles or suitable eye shield when sanding to avoid burn . sanding metals . Tension of belt can be Keep your sander clean â€” remove saw - adjusted to suit curve dust regularly , especially before sanding of work . metal , as this will avoid any fire hazard . To replace the abrasive on the sanding disc first remove the old abrasive from the disc , Circular work should be held in a jig or then apply " Distic " , water glass , or a heavy fixture ( Figure 34 ) . Be sure that all sanding rubber cement . If necessary , use weights on is done on the " downward " side of the disc . disc so that the abrasive will stick properly Hold the work lightly against the disc , and without wrinkles or high spots . move slowly back and forth to avoid burning Do not put too much pressure on the work , the wood or damaging the abrasive . The as this tends to clog up the belt , thereby mitre gauge is very useful in all squaring , decreasing the life of the abrasive . chamfering and angle sanding operations . Never use belt dressings on drums . In order to facilitate the sanding of work requiring roughing and finishing operations , TYPES OF BELTS AND DISCS it is recommended that the user purchase an The abrasive used on your belt and disc extra sanding disc for use with fine abrasive sander depends upon the work which you discs . ' wish to sand . For most woodworking oper - Be careful . Hold the work firmly so it ations on soft woods , garnet belts and discs may not be driven from your hands allowing are used . However , on hard woods , alu - them to hit sanding belt . For best results minum oxide belts and discs are usually always sand with the grain . If it becomes preferred . necessary to sand against the grain , try to Both aluminum oxide and silicon carbide hold work so that grain is at a slight angle , are used for sanding metal . and feed work with a little more care . Be Aluminum oxide is used for sanding metals sure that the wood or other materials you of high tensile strength , whereas silicon car - wish to sand are thoroughly dry . bide is recommended for metals of low tensile Sanding belt should rotate in the direction strength . of arrow as indicated on the inside of belt . 26 25
For miscellaneous work on glass , porcelain , THE tile , stone , composition and rubber , use sili - con carbide abrasive belts and discs . DRILL When sanding plastics , either aluminum PRESS oxide or silicon carbide may be used . The abrasives may have a paper back , a cloth back or a combination of both . The paper - backed belts and discs are less expen - sive but do not stand up as well from a pro - DEPTH SCALI duction standpoint as the slightly higher - priced cloth - backed abrasives . Since the work done on the sander belt is of a general nature , it is usually best to use a ( 100 - 2 / 0 ) or ( 80 - 0 ) grit sander belt . The disc sander is mostly used for edging operations and therefore you should use a coarser abrasive , usually an ( 80 - 0 ) or ( 60 - 1 / 2 ) grit . Where fine cabinet work is being done it is always best to use ( 120 - 3 / 0 ) or ( 100 - 2 / 0 ) for the FIGURE 35 final sanding operation . In general , abra - sives are classified as follows : Fine : ( 150 - 4 / 0 ) ( 120 - 3 / 0 ) ( 100 - 2 / 0 ) The drill press is a very versatile machine Medium : ( 80 - 0 ) ( 60 - 1 / 2 ) ( 50 - 1 ) and can handle numerous operations other Coarse : ( 40 - 1 - 1 / 2 ) ( 36 - 2 ) than drilling . With proper accessories you can do shaping , mortising , sanding , routing , polishing , planing , and finishing . DRILLING Be sure that the drill runs true . Scored or marred drill shanks will not cut a true hole . When drilling hard material with a large drill use low speed . Small drills should be run at FIGURE 33 higher speeds and should be fed into the work Use either drum for sanding inside curves . with great care . It is very desirable to have two sets of drills â€” one set for drilling steel FIGURE 34 and other hard materials â€” one set for drill - Using a jig to sand ing brass , aluminum , lead and other soft circular work . materials . 28
CUTTING FLUIDS Cutting fluids in machining operations are used as â€” ( 1 ) A Coolant â€” In production work , cool - ing both the tool and the work is usually the most important factor to consider . ( 2 ) A Lubricant â€” ( a ) Cutting fluids are used to lubricate the contact surfaces be - FIG . 36 : Sanders for drill press . tween the cutting tool and the work , which reduces heat caused by friction and lessens tool wear , ( b ) To lubricate the chips and SANDING the top surface of the tool as the chips are Drum sanders and rotary surface sander being removed from the work , ( c ) To pre - mounted to the drill press with a special vent the chips from sticking . adapter . Remove the chuck and knurled ( 3 ) An Agent to Produce a Desired Finish collar . Place adapter on the spindle and â€” Cutting fluids , if properly selected , will then replace the knurled collar and tighten improve the finish of the machined surface . securely . With these drum sanders the oper - ator can sand material of irregular sizes and RECOMMENDED CUTTING FLUIDS shapes . The rotary surface sander is used for true surface sanding of woods , plastics Aluminum and metal finishing . its Alloys Kerosene , Soluble Oil Dry Bakelite , Plastic Dry , Soluble Oil , Kerosene Brass , Soft Soluble Oil , Lard Oil , Dry Bronze FIGURE 37 Dry , Air Jet , Soluble Oil Cast Iron Rotary wood planner . Soluble Oil Copper Dry Lucite , Slate Low Viscosity Neutral Oils Magnesium PLANING AND PARALLELING Dry , Soda Water Malleable Iron The multi - purpose rotary wood planer Lard Oil , Soluble Oil Monel Metal ( Figure 37 ) can be used to plane boards up Soluble Oil , Sulphurized Steel , to 12 inches in width . It can also be used Oil , Mineral Lard Oil Manganese for routing , rabbeting and for paneling Soluble Oil , Mineral Lard Steel , Soft operations . Oil , Sulphurized Oil Steel , Stainless Sulphurized Mineral Oil ROUTING AND WOODCARVING Soluble Oil , Mineral Lard Steel , Tool Oil , Sulphurized Oil When using various types of router or Soluble Oil , Mineral Lard Wrought Iron woodcarving bits it is best to replace the Oil , Sulphurized Oil chuck with a special router adapter . 29 30
FIG . 38 Shoping fence . SHAPING In order to turn your drill press into a shaper it will be necessary to purchase a TAILSTOCK shaper table , a shaper fence , and a set of shaping cutters . Drill press head may be inverted if desired . Shaper cutters are FIGURE 40 mounted to the drill press spindle with special adapters . All types of shaping operations can be done on your drill press , such as cut - THE LATHE ting moldings , tongue and groove flutes and Wood turning on the lathe is the most beads on either straight or irregular work . fascinating of all power tool operations . It is amazing to see the interesting designs pos - sible with hardly any effort the first time you DRILLING use a lathe . Besides spinning beautiful ob - SQUARE jects the lathe is a versatile utility tool . It can be adapted to boring , routing , sawing , HOLES polishing , sanding , etc . ADJUSTING THE TOOL REST FIGURE 39 To adjust the tool rest first loosen tool rest Mortising attachment post clamp and set the top of the tool rest mounted on drill press with approximately } < s " above the center line of chisels and bits for cutting your work . Never set the top of the tool a mortise . rest below the center line of the piece of wood being turned . Next line up the top edge of the tool rest parallel to the piece being turned DRILLING SQUARE HOLES and about JxJ " away from the farthest pro - A Darra - James mortising attachment con - jecting edge of the stock . Do not try to verts your drill press so that you can cut adjust tool rest while the lathe is running . clean , accurate mortise and tenon joints for Be sure to turn work by hand , to make sure chairs , tables , cabinets , windows , screens , that it has sufficient clearance , and check all doors , etc . In order to do mortising you will the clamps and locking devices before turning need a set of hollow chisels and a set of bits . on the electric power . 31 32
The round side of the gouge should rest on " POSITION OF OPERATOR " the tool rest and should be turned or rolled a Operator should stand in a natural position little to the right , always holding the wooden in front of the lathe , with the left side of the handle down . After the roughing cut has body turned slightly nearer the lathe than been made be sure to readjust the tool the right side . Operator should dress prop - rest so that it is Vs " away from the cyl - erly to eliminate the possibility of long inder and tighten in this position . sleeves , neckties , long hair or other loose The " parting tool " is used to cut narrow clothing getting caught in the revolving grooves to serve as depth guides to facilitate stock . the turning of a true cylinder . The parting Q Â© Â© Â© Â© Â® 0 Â© tool may also be used for squaring or cutting off the ends of the cylinder to the proper length . The parting tool should be held with the narrow edge on the tool rest with the point of the tool above the center line . The " round - nose chisel " is used for con - cave cutting . Place the round - nose chisel flat on the tool rest with the bevel side of the chisel down . The " square - nose chisel " is used for smoothing off the cylinder and making it perfectly straight just before the sanding operation . Hold the chisel with the beveled FIGURE 41 side down . WOOD TURNING TOOLS The " diamond - point chisel " is generally used for convex or bead cutting where it is The tools used for wood turning are : % " gouge chisel necessary to round off corners . The diamond - No . 1 , % " gouge chisel No . 2 , 1 " gouge chisel No . 3 , point chisel should be held with the beveled ' / 2 " skew chisel No . 4 , 1 " skew chisel No . 5 , ' / z " round side resting on the tool rest . nose chisel No . 6 , Vi " spear point chisel No . 7 , ! / 8 " The " skew " is used for smoothing the parting tool No . 8 . cylinder . Lay the large skew on tool rest TURNING OPERATION with the cutting edge above the cylinder and at an angle of 60 Â° to the surface of the cylin - When turning stock under 3 " square , place der . To start the cut , draw the chisel back the " V " belt on the largest pulley on the slowly towards you and raise the handle until headstock . Run the lathe on this low speed the chisel begins to cut at a point approxi - until all roughing cuts have been made and mately J ^ " from the heel . the stock is cylindrical in form . In general all roughing cuts should be made at low The skew may also be used for rounding off corners . speeds . 33 34
THE JOINTER CUTTER GUARD FENCE LOCK The jointer is used to plane lumber , cut rabbets or joint edges of lumber . The term jointer comes from the operation of making straight , smooth edges of two pieces of lum - ber so they can be glued together ( or joined ) to form table tops , etc . By extending a piece of lumber over the edge you can cut a rabbet in one side of a board such as is used REAR TABLE ADJUSTMENT for door paneling . By tilting the fence you can bevel the edge on any size work . FIG . 42 : The jointer . The jointer operates on the principle of a rotary cutter revolving at high speed . Every the front table and at the same time holding jointer has two adjustable tables , the front the board firmly against the fence . When or infeed and the rear table . The front cutting boards over three feet in length , the table is set higher than the rear table the most uniform cut will be maintained by sup - depth of cut desired . Thus the piece of the porting the board at table height after it lumber already cut rests on the rear table leaves the rear table . Warped boards should after it passes through the cutter . be cut on the concave side for best results . To avoid pitting or torn grain , operator OPERATION should wherever possible determine which way the grain emerges from the board . The The width of the cut is determined by the board should be fed through the machine distance from the end of the cutter knives with the grain pointing downward and to the fence . Face planing or surfacing is towards the front of the jointer . Unlike the most common function of the jointer . other jointers , your Darra - James jointer has The depth of cut , in most cases , is deter - the fence attached to the rear table instead mined by the width of the board . A ' 32 " of the front table . cut will produce the best surface . On nar - row material the cut may be set deeper SHARPENING THE KNIVES although care should be given to the type of Knives should be honed occasionally with wood which operator is using . Where deep a fine abrasive stone to retouch the edge . It cuts are desired it is best to take several cuts is not necessary to remove the cutter knives until the full depth has been attained . The out of the cutter head ; simply put a wooden board should be fed through the guard to the wedge between the cutter head and the table cutter head with a smooth , slow feed . Both so that it will hold the knife firmly and at the hands should be placed on top of the board , proper'angle . Adjust the front table so that the left hand pressing the board firmly down the stone presses lightly against the full against the surface of the rear table , while width of the knife bevel . the right hand exerts the feed pressure over 36 35
APPENDIX To remove the burr on the flat side of the knife , use a fine slip stone or a piece of emery Reputable power tool manufacturers in - cloth . clude instruction manuals with each power tool on maintenance and operation of the tool . An explanation of some of the com - mon shop terms are listed below . A . C . AND D . C . Alternating current and direct current . Alternating current is the one most generally used . Direct current will most often be found in the form of 110 or 32 - volt current on farms which have their own generating plants . Some of the older cities , such as New York and Chicago , have direct current in one part of the city and alternating in FIGURE 43 others . Removing cutter head . ARBOR The revolving spindle , line shaft , motor REMOVING AND RESETTING KNIVES arbor , or the headstock of a lathe . The re - Cutter Head assembly may be removed from volving shaft to which saw blade , buffer , base loosening screw No . 21 . chucks , etc . , are attached . To remove knives for grinding or replace - ARMATUR E ment , simply loosen Set Screws in cutter - Rotating assembly on the inside of an head and then lift Knives and Chip Breakers electric motor . out of the cutter head slots . Extreme care BALL BEARINGS should be exercised when reinstalling knives . Ball bearings , as their name implies , are First use a straightedge to see that both small steel balls used as bearings . Their tables are level . Insert knives and chip purpose is to reduce friction between moving breakers into slots in cutter head so that the surfaces . knives project slightly above the surface of BEARINGS the tables , and the cutting edge of the knife In general , the part which supports a towards the front tables , then clamp lightly shaft as it turns are the bearings . They are by turning the three set screws . Next , usually made of brass or bronze , and have place the straightedge across the two tables the appearance of a sleeve . and tap the knives with a piece of hard wood BUSHING until each knife just touches the straight - Metallic linings for bearings , usually made edge at either end of the cutter head . When of relatively soft metal , such as bronze or all three knives have been aligned in the babbit . These bearings can be replaced above manner , tighten the nine set screws when they become worn . securely . 38 37
CUTTER HEAD BEVELING Giving a slanting edge to a piece of wood . The part of a planer which holds the blade ; also called planer head and sometimes safety CALIBRATE D head . Graduated ; scaled for fine measurements . DADO SAW CHAMFERIN G Beveling one edge . A set of saws designed for cutting wide grooves . Generally this term refers to a set CHIP BREAKER of two outside cutters and a group of chip - A small piece of steel pressed against the pers . cutter blade in position . Also called the gib plate . DOVETAILING CHIPPER A method of making joints in which a key - Cutter in the center of a dado saw which stone bead is set into a keystone groove , in such a way that it cannot pull out . cuts out the wood between the grooves formed by the outside cutters of the saw FACE PLATE blade . A flat plate which attaches to the head - CHUCK stock of a lathe . Multiple clamps in one housing to hold FLUTING drills , etc . Operates by geared key or Making cuts on a spindle shaped piece of knurled collar . wood , down the length of the piece . COLLAR FOUR - STEP PULLEY Tlange which holds the wheel on a bench grinder . A pulley having four sets of grooves of different diameters so as to give four different COLLET CHUCK speeds when used with a similar pulley on Chuck designed to hold routing , mortising the motor . and dovetail cutters ; often used in connec - tion with drill press and flexible shaft . It is FRET SAW BLADE so designed that it gives a very solid grip , A blade similar to a jig saw blade , but and very accurately centers the cutter . smaller for very delicate work . COUNTERSHAFT HANGERS Intermediate shaft used to transmit power Bearing supports for a lineshaft . from the lineshaft or motor to the machin - HEADSTOCK SPINDLE ery . Sometimes called a jackshaft . The spindle in the headstock of a lathe . CROSS CUT HEADSTOCK To cut across the grain of wood . Work is held between two parts of a lathe , CUP CENTER the headstock and the tailstock . The head - An attachment which fits into the tailstock stock is the power or driving end . The tail - of a lathe . The wood is mounted and turns stock is stationary and is called the dead end . on this center . 39 40
IDLER PULLEY MOTOR BRACKET A pulley which does not convey power . Attachment or base to hold a motor . Used when it is desired to stop a machine without stopping the lineshaft , or to change POLISHING HEAD the direction in which the belt is traveling . Tool designed to hold various polishing INLAYING and grinding wheels . Similar to bench Setting one or more pieces of wood into grinder . the surface of another piece , generally for PROTRACTOR purposes of design . An angular scale gauge calibrated in de - JOINTING grees . A protractor is used on the front end Making a joint between two pieces of of a jointer to insure the correct angle of cut . material , usually wood . REPULSION - INDUCTION MOTOR KNURLIN G A type of motor so designed that it devel - Raising and roughening of a metal surface ops very high " starting torque " . in an even pattern so as to give a good grip . LAMINATED RIPPING Made of several thin layers of material Sawing with the grain of wood , usually glued together . When wood is laminated , lengthwise . the grain of one layer runs in the opposite R . P . M . direction to that of the next . Wood is lam - Revolutions per minute . inated in order to prevent warping and to give it increased strength . Plywood is lam - SHAPING inated . Cutting a molding or fancy edge on a piece of wood . MITER A bevel cut on end of board for the purpose SPINDLE of making a joint . Any round rod . The term when used in MITER GAUGE connection with machinery refers to a re - Gauge used on a bench saw to guide lum - volving shaft , generally the heart of the tool , ber at the correct angle for mitering . which in revolving carries the work or the MORTISING cutting instrument . Cutting a cavity in a piece of lumber for TOLERANCE the purpose of making a mortise - and - tenon Allowance for inaccuracy . Accurate tools joint . Tongue and groove . have very small tolerances , less than . 001 A mortise - and - tenon joint is made by cut - or so . ting one or more cavities in one piece of wood and cutting a tongue or tenon on the end of WOOD - TURNING the other pieces to fit into these cavities . An operation performed on a lathe . The The cavities are called mortises and the parts word is derived from the fact that the piece which fit into them tenons . being cut turns around while the stationary tool cuts it . 41 42